In a large bowl, whisk together the flour, cream of tartar, baking soda, salt, cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves; set aside.
In the bowl of a stand mixer, cream the butter and sugar at medium speed until light and fluffy, about 2 minutes. Scrape down sides of the bowl with a rubber spatula if needed.
Add the egg and beat until combined. Add the pumpkin and beat until combined. Add the dry ingredients and beat on low speed until just combined, about 30 seconds.
Place the remaining 1/4 cup sugar and cinnamon in a shallow bowl. Roll a heaping tablespoon of dough into a 1½-inch ball, roll the ball in the sugar mixture, and place it on a parchment-lined baking sheet. Repeat with the remaining dough, spacing the balls about 2 inches apart.
Bake until the edges are set and just beginning to brown but the centers are still soft and puffy, 10 to 12 minutes. Cool on the baking sheet about 5 minutes, then transfer the cookies to a wire rack to cool to room temperature.