In a large salad bowl (wooden is best), with the back of a large spoon, crush the minced garlic in the bowl until it is almost a paste. Add the anchovy filets and the pepper. Mash the anchovy filets with the back of the spoon until it is almost a paste. Add the egg yolk, mustard and lemon juice. Stir until well combined. Add olive oil and stir until combined. Add vinegar, stir until combined. You are making an emulsion, the dressing should be getting thick. Finish by adding the 1/3 to 1/2 of the parmesan cheese into the dressing, add more if you want a thicker dressing.
Toss dressing with romaine lettuce and croutons (homemade are the best). Top each saled with additional parmesan cheese and freshly grated pepper.