Kneading Dough Article -
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How to Knead Dough

Kneading dough gives you a loaf of bread that's soft, chewy, and delicious.

1. Place your dough on a well-floured work surface. Grab the side of the dough furthest away from you and fold it toward yourself.

2. Fold the dough in half and use your body weight to push the dough into itself. The beginning of the kneading process might require a lot of flour. Be generous to start, but try not to add more than the dough can easily incorporate, or you will throw off the flour-yeast-water-salt ratio.

    3. Give the dough a quarter turn (90 degrees). Grab the other side and fold it in half. Again, with a lot of weight behind it, push the newly folded half into itself. Repeat this process until the dough is smooth, silky, and elastic, about ten minutes or more.

    Don't worry about over-kneading your bread when you're kneading it by hand--you'd have to really overwork it to break down the gluten structure.

    Certain flours will make your bread more dense, no matter how much you knead it. Rye flour, for example, doesn't contain gluten proteins, so most rye bread recipes contain wheat flour for structure. Whole wheat flours are high in protein, but the bran can interfere with the gluten structure, making many 100% whole wheat breads fairly heavy textured.

      4. If you're adding raisins, nuts, or olives to the dough, work them in now.

      A fully developed dough should be very smooth, with small air bubbles just below the surface of the skin.

      When you've finished kneading, shape the dough into a loose ball. Place the dough in an oiled bowl, turning it over to coat the surface lightly with oil, and let it rest smooth-side up.

      Cover the dough with a damp kitchen towel or plastic wrap to keep the surface from drying out. Let the dough rise as directed in the recipe.

      Between the first and second rise, you don't have to knead the bread again: you can just fold it gently to express some of the gas.

      Related Articles and Bread Recipes:

      Jul. 6, 2009 11:38 am
      Is there a video for kneading dough? That would be helpful for first time bread bakers like myself!
      Sep. 9, 2009 2:02 pm
      I saw this very informative data for the first time, and having noted the comment from SarahMc, I agree that a video about kneading dough for first time users, like myself as she stated, would be most helpful. Thank you for all the information and recipes. I love to check Allrecipes site daily. This is my son's computer and I have to literally kick him off the computer so I can see what goodies Allrecipes has for me.
      Sep. 21, 2009 6:31 am
      Question for the more experienced: Is the kneading time the same, whether you do it by hand or use a Kitchenaid mixer with dough hook? Thanks!
      Oct. 3, 2009 11:05 am
      Homemade bread makers are a rarity. I've played with a lot of dough and read several books on the subject.I am getting better over the years but it would be nice to see a video.
      Oct. 7, 2009 5:03 pm
      i love dutch oven cooking and sourdough everything and have been trying to learn to make bread in the mountains not knowing if i'm kneading it right has wasted a lot of dough i'm for the video also thanks folks
      Oct. 8, 2009 5:41 pm
      ok now here is a new twist i just recieved in the mail a sourdough starter pack and it says to knead the dough for fifteen minutes or until gluten development now what am i looking for? the wife finds it funny that her mountain man is on this web site
      Oct. 17, 2009 9:01 am
      Hey Dave...go to the recipe exchange (the little tab up there at the top of the page.) That's where everybody hangs out with their questions. Lots of great people there to help ya'.
      Oct. 20, 2009 6:39 pm
      thank you 1gdcowgrl your friend just ol dave
      jme smith 
      Jan. 12, 2010 8:36 am
      hey hey hey..... and i agree. So why isn't there a video of kneading bread yet??..... I found an "ok" one on YouTube.... but geeeez..... should be one one here!!....
      Jan. 19, 2010 11:16 pm
      just adding my hopes to see a video for bread makers on kneading...soon....?
      Jan. 20, 2010 12:20 pm, is there a way to post a simple video on all the steps of break making - for first timers like me and others, it would save lot of time and wasted effort
      Feb. 4, 2010 10:29 am
      thanks, i'm learning alot through this wonderful site.. thanks again.
      Feb. 7, 2010 9:58 am
      I love making homemade bread .. if I can figure out the format, I will be more than happy to post a video on bread kneading soon. I can't guarantee it'll be on a public forum, but I would assume it'd be available via my page! :)
      Feb. 13, 2010 10:56 am
      This is the best site and resource I've found for everything. All of you and the people that put this web site together are a blessing. Thank you to all of you for your input and help with each of your ideas. All of you are a blessing.
      May 13, 2010 12:35 pm
      Will someone please help....when making home made bread..can you put it in a kitchen aid mixer to let it the mixer do the kneading for me?? Thank you for your help.
      May 28, 2010 11:24 am
      Carolyn, yes, you can use your KA for kneading. As 1gdcowgrl said, go to the top of the page and hit the Recipe Exchange tab. Lots of good folks there to help you with your questions. I don't own a KA, but many on the Exchange do and have plenty of experience with it. Love to see you there.
      Aug. 12, 2010 10:43 am
      AprilW... Youtube has a lot of videos for you to watch!!
      Oct. 3, 2010 4:25 am
      there's a documentary called Cooking for Life (found it on Netflix) where the guy knows a trick or two about kneading dough & shows how to do it one handed. Check it out if you have Netflix online :)
      Oct. 3, 2010 4:28 am
      ps Thank you Carolyn for asking about whether a Kitchen Aid can knead dough, I always wondered about that myself. I may be relying on that now for all of my kneading needs ;)
      Oct. 5, 2010 7:43 pm
      There is a video for needing dough. Try
      Linda Joly 
      Oct. 20, 2010 4:19 am
      When converting a recipe from the Bread Machine to kneading dough with a mixer--what is the formula. Is ti 1/2 the amount of time with a mixer?
      Oct. 27, 2010 7:16 pm
      How long should bread be kneaded if using a large stand mixer?
      Oct. 27, 2010 7:18 pm
      I can't find a tab for recipe exchange.
      Ez Go Movers Ltd. 
      Feb. 4, 2011 1:34 pm
      this is my first time to bake a home made bagels, I love bagels, so I want to know the technique...Thanx for this!!!!
      Apr. 2, 2011 5:45 am
      I'm agreeed to all of you who just start baking homemade bread to see an video. When I first start baking I did w/ a friend who's experience how to knead the dough.It took me 45 mins to knead a 1kgs/2.2 lbs bread four and used up lot of my energy. We did Berner Zoft, it is a soft Swiss bread-specialty from Bern, Switzerland. The dough has to be really gluing. When you shape the dough to ball about diameter 1 inch and pull it away by both hands, if it can strecth more than 2 inches. That's mean perfect dough ready for the first rest. I can provide the recipe and pictures.
      Apr. 3, 2011 11:00 am
      hi all, i would like to start using my clay non-glazed roaster for baking my breads, i did it once, covered for 1/2 hour, wasn't done, put it back for 10 minutes more without the cover, still not done, took it out of roaster and just left on the stone for another 5 minutes, but i didn't want to ruin it, and could not tell if it was done by tapping the bottom, i think it could have been more in the oven, but ... anybody know how long to bake in roaster?
      Apr. 30, 2011 12:27 pm
      The tab is marked Recipe Buzz, takes you to the forums. *^_^* -marian
      Nov. 12, 2011 3:26 pm
      I make a multigrain Cranberry/Walnut bread of my own recipe. It turns out great, but in kneading the dough, I have trouble with it sticking to my hands. If I keep flouring my hands, the bread domes out too dry. I've oiled my hands and that worked a little better and the bread is just perfect. How do I get good bread without sticky hands?
      Jun. 20, 2012 10:31 am
      If Allrecipes wouldn't have taught me to do that, years ago, already. I don't know where I'd be today. Thank you Allrecipes I Really Appreciate What You Have Done For Me,
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