Baking Yeast Breads Article -
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Baking Yeast Breads

Learn how to proof your yeast, handle dough, and test for doneness.

Bread baking is both an art and a science. For beginning bakers, the main point to keep in mind is that yeast is a living organism that requires a warm, moist environment and a food source to grow and thrive.

Active Dry Yeast, Instant Yeast and Compressed Yeast

  • Cake yeast, or compressed yeast, is fresh yeast. It is used by many professional bakers and can be found in the refrigerated section of some supermarkets. It has a short shelf-life of one to two weeks. Some pastry recipes call for fresh yeast, which comes in 0.6-oz squares.
  • Active dry yeast is the most commonly available form for home bakers. It is available in 1/4-oz packets or jars. Store jars in the refrigerator after opening. Be sure to check the expiration date before baking.
  • Instant yeast is a dry yeast developed in the past thirty years. It comes in smaller granules than active dry yeast, absorbs liquid rapidly, and doesn't need to be hydrated or "proofed" before being mixed into flour. "Bread Machine Yeast" is instant yeast that may include ascorbic acid, a dough conditioner.

    Yeast Conversion Rates

    In commercial baking, precise measurements are key. Home bakers generally don't need to reduce or increase liquid amounts to compensate for the type of yeast used since the quantities are so small.

    A 0.6-oz cube of cake yeast is roughly equivalent to 2 to 2-1/4  tsp. active dry rapid rise, instant, or bread machine yeast.

    Proofing Active Dry Yeast

    Yeast makes carbon dioxide gas that acts as a leavening agent. Start by "proofing" or growing the yeast: this ensures it is active and re-hydrated (this step is not required for fresh or instant yeast):

    • Sprinkle the yeast onto warm (110 degrees F/45 degrees C) water and stir to dissolve. The water should feel warm, not hot, to the touch. Yeast feeds on sugars--honey, molasses or refined sugar--by breaking down the flour's starches into sugar molecules.
    • Set the yeast aside until the mixture resembles a creamy foam. This should take between three to eight minutes.
    • If nothing happens, discard the mixture and try again with different yeast.

      Mixing and Handling

      Mixing: Combine the liquid and proofed yeast at the bottom of a mixing bowl. Add flour and salt. Some of the best breads are "lean doughs," consisting simply of flour, water, yeast and salt. Baguettes and ciabatta bread are examples of lean doughs. Enriched doughs contain fat, whether in the form of butter, milk, oil or eggs. Challah, brioche and sweet roll doughs are enriched doughs. If your recipe calls for butter or egg yolks, mix the flour-water-yeast mixture to hydrate the flour and develop the gluten strands before working in the fat.

      Kneading: Using a plastic bowl scraper, wooden spoon, or your hands, scrape the dough onto a liberally floured work surface. Kneading develops long elastic strands of gluten, or wheat protein, which trap the gases produced by the yeast. Kneading by hand is not a complicated process, but it does require some stamina. With the heels of your hands, press the dough down and away from you. Fold the dough over, turn 90 degrees, and repeat over and over until the dough is smooth and elastic. If you're using a stand mixer, knead with the hook attachment on low speed until the dough is elastic. Flour or oil your fingertips and pinch off a small piece of dough. You should be able to stretch the dough to a thin "windowpane" without tearing it.


      Once the dough has doubled--this can take between 45 minutes and two hours, as enriched doughs take far longer than lean--deflate it and expel the gas. If you're dividing the dough into loaves or strands for braiding, use a sharp knife rather than tearing the dough.

      • On a lightly floured surface, shape the loaves as desired: if you're baking in standard loaf pans, pat the dough into a rectangle to express the gas bubbles and fold up in three parts, like a business letter.
      • Pinch the seam to seal.
      • Place the loaves in pans or on a lightly floured kitchen towel. If you're topping loaves with seeds, now is the time to do it.
      • Cover with a damp towel and let rise at room temperature while you preheat the oven.

      Flour your index and middle fingers, and gently poke the sides of your loaf. The indentations should remain; if the dough springs back, it needs to rise more.


      Scoring the loaves adds more than a decorative touch: it also allows gas to escape without bursting open the seam and disfiguring the bread. Use a serrated knife--or a baker's lame, a curved razorblade--to cut diagonal slashes. Work quickly, cutting about 1/4-inch deep. Immediately transfer loaves to the hot oven.


        The heat from the oven makes the gases in the dough expand, causing "oven spring" and releasing moisture.

        • Baking stones help home ovens mimic hearth ovens by storing heat and moderating the temperature. Use a spray bottle to spritz the walls of the oven, creating a blast of steam for a crisp, chewy crust.
        • For a soft and tender crust, brush the loaves with milk or egg wash before baking. You can also brush the tops of the baked loaves or rolls with melted butter as soon as they come out of the oven.

        Bake until the bread is well browned. Test for doneness by picking up the loaf with a hot pad and rapping on the bottom with your knuckles: the loaf should sound hollow when done. If it does not, or the sides or bottom of the loaf are still pale, return the bread to the pan and continue baking.

        Aug. 22, 2009 6:26 am
        I want to make "Clone to Cinnabon" rolls. I have a Cuisinart Breadmaker and it recommends a maximum liquid temp of 90 degrees F. so as not to kill off the yeast. The Clone recipe as well as many others, call for a temp. of 110 F. is this an issue?
        csornai fiu 
        Sep. 10, 2009 4:09 pm
        I just buiult a wood fired brick oven (started in April 2009), now it is finished. I am looking for bread receipts that are compatible with outdoor brick ovens. Any suggestions are greatly appretiated. A 73 year old retired scientist who took on this oven building project. Csornaifiu
        Sep. 16, 2009 6:46 am
        I have ben makeing home made bread and sweet rolls for years now and i love doing it ....
        Sep. 16, 2009 9:28 am
        I have been baking rye bread for five years , it looks good but never really taste like rye bread , is there some kind of an active that I can add to the bread dough . NORB
        Sep. 16, 2009 9:40 am
        Norb, in order for the bread to taste like rye bread you need to add carraway seeds.
        Oct. 1, 2009 9:22 pm
        To: mom2eric~ I've been teaching bread baking for over 20 years. To proof the yeast, 110 degrees is just about perfect. At 90 degrees it will take a lot longer for the yeast to proof. Over 115 degress you can "kill" the yeast. Hope this info helps.
        Oct. 1, 2009 9:33 pm
        To: mom2eric~ I am sorry, I didn't realize you were using a bread machine. I have never used a bread machine as it is so easy to make by hand. But possible the recommended temp. of 90 degrees is because the machine may produce some extra heat so they are being careful.
        Oct. 1, 2009 11:00 pm
        To: mom2eric~ read up on bread machines...The yeast recommened for bread machines is INSTANT YEAST which activate at a temp. between 100-105 degrees.
        Oct. 2, 2009 2:43 pm
        Just did some bread bowls and while the first rise was good, the second wasn't. They were flatish and had a crusty outside. Don't know if I'm kneading too long (using mixer with dough hooks or because I forgot to damp dish towel,
        Oct. 3, 2009 10:49 am
        I have been making homemade bread for years. The top of my loaves never come out nice and round,they are always flat. The breads tastes very good but I really want that nice round loaf. I cook my bread at 350 for about 30 minutes. What am I doing wrong. Thanks
        Oct. 15, 2009 5:55 am
        I tried to make French Bread To Die For, yesterday,Twice,They were flat.Good yeast,flour salt,temp, knead,etc. It was a rainy day, I wonder if that affected my results, which were a wasted day and $$! Good Grief Charlie Brown! UUGGG:(
        Oct. 26, 2009 5:02 am
        I've been trying to teach myself how to bae bread and have only made a couple of loaves but they both came out dense (the first was edible, the second not so much). Can anyone help me figure out what I did wrong?
        Oct. 26, 2009 10:26 pm
        Megan, Maybe you're over-kneading/mixing the bread, thusly causing the gluten to break down/coagulate/some such thing? I've had that problem before and have tried to knead less and it seems to help...? : /
        Oct. 29, 2009 11:19 am
        all of the things you guys talk about are weaksauce
        Nov. 1, 2009 4:09 pm
        You should try allowing it to rise for less time. Sometimes when you let bread rise for longer than the time necesary to double (which varies of course depending on the temperature, etc.) It over stretches the gluten, making it weaker, and causing it to collapse when it bakes.
        Claudine Pelletier 
        Nov. 1, 2009 7:30 pm
        I let my dough rise on the clothes dryer while it's running (in a greased, covered bowl) and it works like a charm! I'm new to bread making so I was glad to learn this trick! The temperature, during first rising especially, I think is important.
        Nov. 5, 2009 3:13 pm
        My bread always raises beautifully and looks light and feathery but it seems to always have a chewy texture. Is this something that that I do? I use a bread machine to mix the dough only.
        Nov. 6, 2009 10:42 am
        I almost never use the maximum amount of flour called for in a recipe. I like the ready to bake dough to feel just tacky to the touch, not sticky, just tacky. It seems to produce a lighter loaf . Bread kneaded by hand probably can't be over kneaded. Machine kneading is very vigorous, so follow the mfg or recipe instructions carefully for the type of bread you are making.
        Eda Khan 
        Nov. 14, 2009 11:37 pm
        I would like to make a french loaf bread,but has no confident to do it.May be can u give some encouragement n tips on how to do it,
        Doug Black 
        Nov. 19, 2009 10:06 am
        Your Web site is great,I love all the helpful information you give along w/ the recipes. What would help me is to have a way to return to a previous page without having to close the page I'm on and starting all over again. Thanks!
        Nov. 22, 2009 10:34 am
        re: the rising topic- during the warmer months, i'll even placed my bread/rolls in the pan in the car (covered) out of direct sunlight of course. this works great in the garage! i heve a cabinet above the oven so in the winter i stick the pans in there atop my cookbooks. I must try the dryer!!I found somewhere online that adding a bit of buttermilk or lemon juice helps the rise as well and it seems to also work out.
        Nov. 23, 2009 7:59 am
        I would like to make bread but it is not going to well!!
        Nov. 24, 2009 2:07 am
        best water temp. is 90 degrees, 110 degrees gives you less time to work your dough & shortens dough life. finished dough temp. should be no higher than 80 degrees, when its finished mixing. do not let salt come in direct contact with yeast , salt will kill yeast,darrell, 36 year bakery exp.
        Nov. 24, 2009 2:21 am
        the longer you mix a dough the tougher it will be, as far as bread tops being flat, your dough was probably too slack,(sticky)or proofed too hot & too long. be patient & let it rise at room temp, till doubled in size. bake at 350, 375
        Dec. 2, 2009 5:50 am
        I would like to freeze my dough and use it later....has anyone ever done this? Did it turn out well? I don't want to waste it. Thanks JMVS
        Dec. 14, 2009 6:47 am
        I freeze bread dough frequently and it works just fine. I also make rolls or cinnamon buns in the evening through the first rise and then shape and place them into a baking pan. I then put them into the refrigerator and take them out in the morning. Even in the fridge they rise overnight and in the morning I let them warm to room temperature ( about 45 minutes ) and bake as usual. Works like a charm.
        Dec. 19, 2009 7:48 am
        Darrell, what kind of yeast are you using? Instant yeast calls for 90 degree water, but I've never used instant. Thanks. Ann
        Dec. 22, 2009 1:22 am
        I want to make rye bread, but use a square box to make it shaped for sandwiches (the recipes I've seen shape them differently). So two questions: 1. Would this change the baking time (longer/shorter)? 2. How high should I fill the pan?
        Jan. 2, 2010 7:04 pm
        So if my recipe calls for dry yeast, I can put the same amount of rapid rise yeast in instead? Both are .25 ounce.
        Jan. 6, 2010 6:52 pm
        I baked bread years ago and tried some recently had forgotten a few things! The bread I made was good but I was wanting a lighter Bread this bread was too dense. Any help please I used a sour dough starter. thanks kathy
        Jan. 24, 2010 7:24 pm
        MEGAN and KATHY - please read the following for helping your loaves rise well and expand in the oven. Also, cool the loaves COMPLETELY before cutting because pressing on the loaf or releasing the steam compacts the loaf. Every baker learnt his/her own way to create the outside "shell" and internal layers. I personally like the technique from Laurel's Kitchen and Laurel's Bread Book. But it's a little difficult to describe without graphics. Here is probably the simplest way to shape a loaf of bread: Press the kneaded dough into an evenly thick rectangle. "Eyeball" the center of width to divide into two equal rectangles. Bring both side edges to the middle. Fold again along the "eyeballed" center, so you now have one fourth the original rectangle. Pinch the edges to seal, also gently shaping the newly formed "loaf" to fit the pan or desired end result if baking without a form. You should be fairly gentle through this process, as you are developing an outer layer "skin" that will
        Jan. 29, 2010 8:56 am
        most interested in the post from the scientific gentleman with the wood oven mine is my mk.2 in spain same pattern as the mk.i in england but bigger i can get a wild boar in (just) takes 6 hours more or less to warm up but then takes very little to keep running due to my (unpatented) double heating construction.still haven't finished cosmetics but been cooking for over 2 years with it- just baked bread and have beef ribs potato and onion due out in an hour- nothing fancy- out of the freezer into earthenware pot with water bayleaves whole peppercorns garlic and salt a little finely chopped liver when the liquid is reduced to a thick sauce i will attack after a seemly rest to cool . a little local red wine - y esta cheers.
        Feb. 1, 2010 3:01 am
        I agree with the note on cooling. There is a handy way of doing it. I purchased on of those bread slicer guides a while back when bread machines were all the rage; it's plastic (but then what isn't anymore?) that holds the hot loaf with guides for a knife. Using an electric knife to slice and you get perfect slices every time with no mashed up, torn bread
        Feb. 20, 2010 12:09 pm
        my breads come out fine except that they are somewhat crumbly. Is there anything I can add to make the breads stiffer and less crumbly? Thanks.
        Feb. 28, 2010 5:27 am
        i bake bread a lot (amish white) and after putting it together and putting it into my oiled bowl, i put my damp rag over it and put it into my microwave which is above my stove and turn on the surface light of the stove. it gives off just enough warmth to rise my dough wonderfully.
        Mar. 13, 2010 9:11 am
        I tried making deep-fried corn fritters, but need to know how to make the dough more "dense" for a more chewy fritter. Any ideas?
        Mar. 19, 2010 7:19 pm
        Hmmm can someone tell me what weather has to do with all this...been baking bread for all of a sudden won't rise...Vancouver yucky wet weather?? The yeast is new. Everything else same as always.
        Mar. 23, 2010 6:54 pm
        What does it mean if I sprinkle the yeast over the water and it falls to the bottom of my bowl? Water is warm and it happenned with active dry yeast packets and rapid yeast packets.
        L. J. 
        Mar. 23, 2010 7:03 pm
        I enjoy baking bread. But when I make my whole wheat bread, it comes out crumbly. Any suggestions?
        Mar. 29, 2010 8:06 pm
        When I started baking bread my loaves would look like bricks, so I asked my mother-in-law, what was I doing wrong? She told me to beat the yeast mixture with my electric mixer and it turned out very well. I have been using this method now, for years.
        Apr. 9, 2010 2:58 pm
        I made a honey wheat bread that came out with a very coarse texture and was dry. It tastes fine, but crumbles very easily. How do I improve on the moistness and texture of the bread. I am new to bread making, but am determined to master it.
        Apr. 13, 2010 1:32 am
        Roughly how long does it take to knead the dough till smooth and elastic?
        Apr. 13, 2010 1:34 am
        Roughly how long does it take to knead the dough till smooth and elastic? When I use my Kenwood mixer, I always need to add extra flour or else the dough would be still sticking to the sides of the bowl. HELP!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! THank You.
        Apr. 14, 2010 11:06 am
        I have just decided to start making my own bread, I buy bread and waste it. All that I have made thus far has come out pretty good but I cannot get the dinner roll thing they are either too dense or too sticky. Someone help please and I will also except all types of recipes this bread making is fun and yummy
        Apr. 24, 2010 7:08 pm
        I have been making sourdough bread from a starter for 2 or 3 months now. It comes out wonderfully except for one thing. I have a problem with the baked loaves having an air pocket on the top of the loaf. I do not know if I am over kneading or under kneading, or if the kneading is even the problem. I use my stand mixer with a dough hook to mix and knead the dough when I make the bread dough before the first bulk rising. When I form the dough into loaves, I usually try to knead by hand about 50 times for each loaf. Anyway, can anyone help?
        Jun. 28, 2010 3:01 pm
        Hi Linda. I think your problem is the shaping of the loaves, not the kneading. You want to flatten the dough and push out all the air bubbles before rolling it up or folding it like a burrito. Then let the shaped loaves rise as usual before baking.
        Jul. 1, 2010 2:03 am
        I bake bread every week (no machines) and have some advice: 1) If your bread comes out too compact, you are probably using too much flour. 2) If it is crumbly or dry, try using some fat ( I always put in a couple of tbsp of Extra Virgin olive oil) 3) The longer you knead (by hand), the better the texture. 4) I often just use cold water and the bread rises just fine. It can take a little longer, but the aroma will only be better! Same goes for letting it rise in the fridge during the night!
        Jul. 1, 2010 3:07 pm
        I just started baking bread (only made 2 loaves so far) from an easy French bread recipe I found and everything OK so far! Important to spray oven(and bread lightly)for a crispy crust. I sat here and read every comment (a lot!)and the very last one from Maranita was by far the best!! P.S....I worked in an Italian restaurant for 2 years & watched when he baked their bread for sandwiches and garlic bread every morning! He tried to keep it a secret, same with his Italian salad dressing, but you can learn alot just by watching!!! Thanks for reading this rambling, Have a good, smelly (baking bread of course!) day.......
        Jul. 3, 2010 7:44 am
        Quick proofing tip: After mixing or kneading the dough, put it in a lightly oiled bowl. Turn it over to completely coat, the cover the bowl with plastic wrap. Place in a microwave oven and cook for 10 minutes on 1 (lowest power). When timer goes off, let it sit in the microwave another 45 minutes for perfectly risen bread.
        Jul. 29, 2010 7:48 pm
        Can you 'save' old flour by adding gluten? I used flour that was a year old from the cabinet and the bread came out dry, with a hard dark crust.
        Aug. 3, 2010 3:30 pm
        I have been baking bread for quite some time now and started out using a bread machine. Gave it up and started doing it by hand, resulting in much better breads. I knead all my breads 300 times and though it is time consuming it gives the best texture. Kneadfing it fgor shorter times makes them have a lot more air pockets. I make mostly sour dough and am trying to make rye. Have so far had rather poor results , as it doesn't seem to rise enough no matter what I do. Am now reducing the amounts of rye flour in preportion to the white flour and hoping it will do the trick. Any help would be welcomed. For those of you who are somewhat pensive on making breads,,,, Keep on trying the results will come and you will be happy. Don't be afraid to try something new either. Home made breads are so much more than store breads.
        Aug. 6, 2010 5:43 pm
        I have been making bread for about 3-4 years now. I have found if you are making whole wheat bread that adding extra gluten will make the bread lighter and fluffier. I add 1 tbls to 2 cups of flour. When you are using a dough hook to knead your bread, my directions say to knead about 2 minutes to every 1/2 cup of flour added during the kneading process. I have read that if you are kneading by hand that kneading for whole wheat bread should be at least 15 minutes. These seem to work for me. Happy baking!!! I have also noticed that rainy weather does seem to influence the rise on my bread. I would use the microwave or oven methods on days like that.
        Aug. 23, 2010 7:35 am
        For TGOO581365: I find that when baking with rye mixed in, it is important to use much less flour than when using only wheat. The dough should be quite sticky, like something inbetween a dough and a batter! Allow generous time to rise. Good luck! (Oh and Pollyparrot - thank you, I am so flattered!)
        Aug. 25, 2010 9:00 pm
        my bread has a yeasty taste what could i be doing wrong?
        Sep. 8, 2010 10:43 am
        I've normally make bread by hand for years until I discovered the bread maker, however, I take out the dough about halfway through and let it continue to proof in the oven before making. Good except for wheat bread. It looked nice (bread machine timer is 3:40 for wheat.)I took it out with 1.5 hrs left and let it sit in pan for an hour to proof. My problem: I tried to bake it for 1/2 hr at 350 (convection) and it wasn't quite done.(Tasted doughy unless it was toasted) How do I calculate when this bread is done? Another half hour? Thank you
        Sep. 27, 2010 3:10 am
        This is my first time writing. I live in Japan. Using allrecipes instead of my cookbooks. I am attempting to make french bread. I am also for the first time using a convection oven. My bread looks beautiful but is dense! I had to guess at how long to bake. Any suggestions. I did use all purpose flour that is a tad bit old. Thank you for your sugestions.
        Oct. 3, 2010 9:50 am
        EntertainingHen, I was taught by grandma to tap on the bread (almost like knocking on it)and when it sounds hollow it is ready. I'm curious about why you combine the machine with scratch baking?Try from scratch only. It is so theraputic! Good Luck.
        Oct. 14, 2010 8:38 am
        Every time I make bread, whether by hand or by machine it refuses to raise! I've proofed the yeast and it's good, but it doesn't matter. The bread machine instructs to simply put the dry yeast in on top of the other ingredients. It STILL doesn't raise. I've gone so far as to use a boxed bread machine mix, but even that doesn't raise. What's the deal? I live in So. Texas - is the lower sea level an issue?
        Nov. 3, 2010 11:19 pm
        Does anyone have receipts for dog food. My dogs (chihuahuas inside) and (German Shepherd outside) are getting bored with their food. I fill their bucket up 3/4 full with good kibble, then on top they get a half a 22oz can commercial dog food, then I cut up some carrots, sometimes green beans, and sprinkle hot dogs, then their kelp is put on, their gluosime w/msn, chodrin goes over that,with brewers yeast/garlic of 5 tablets each dog (I have 10) they love broccli, cabbage in small amounts, and cubes of cheese or cottage cheese. And any gravy left over goes in it two. Good beef hot dogs one day, mixed veggies another day. (I'm cleaning out the freezer of the freeze dried stuff cook it and add it to their meal another night.But at my wits end of what else to get for them. Most stores don't have the organ meats, such as liver, gizzards, necks. Want to know if anyone knows of any new ones. They don't especiall like zucchhi, but love pumpkin (1 tbsp ea. dog) Sometimes I make them hard boile
        Nov. 3, 2010 11:25 pm
        I also make their dog bisquits, different flavors, with chicken broth, beef bullion, and throw some crumbled ground beef. Want them to get the vitamins and nurtrients they need for their size. That is their dessert after din din.
        Nov. 9, 2010 3:17 pm
        Thank you very much for letting me see this again. I just wanted to make sure that I wasn't making any mistakes. This site is very helpful to me. Thanx again for being available.
        Nov. 16, 2010 10:57 am
        i want to make "Clone of a cinnabon" and it sayd put dough cycle and my bread machine bakes like an oven but what do u want it to really like first rise or second rise......
        Dec. 19, 2010 8:27 am
        I made sweet rolls yesterday. The recipe calls for scalded milk with butter added to melt. Yeast was good as it foamed readily. I kneaded the dough 6-8 minutes as called for. Baked 300* til brown. The end result was dry dry dry. I always 'coddle' my dough by warming the bowls they rise in, set on warm towels under a warm light. Consistency would be a dream in making these things!! Suggestions?
        Jan. 9, 2011 1:18 pm
        I have own my eyes and i noticed that race beat and who best diff homemade i do not like that and I want good one on top homemade. i had frustrate homemade rolls and bread. I always see my foster mom always homemade good one i love it somehow i need someone help me pls. that why i am frustrate homemade biscuits,rolls,breads,and others.
        Jan. 27, 2011 2:00 pm
        I have been baking bread for years, and here's what I just recently discovered. The quality of the flour makes a HUGE difference. I always just thought flour was flour. It's not. I recently bought some wonderful Montana Unbleached White flour with a high gluten content (a white wheat berry instead of red). Amazing difference with the same recipes. If you buy cheaper flour add extra gluten and it will help. If you can get Montana white wheat flour/grain you will love it (order on-line). I buy the wheat berries and grind them for whole wheat bread, but I also buy the flour with high gluten for my French bread. Last thing, if you are having flat bread issues with your french bread, you need more flour. I find that my dough has to be much stiffer for French bread than with regular bread to have a nice tall, stately loaf. Happy baking!
        Feb. 5, 2011 10:41 pm
        When proofing yeast altitude plays a role in determining what temperature the water should be. I live very high up, I'm not sure what the numbers are, but I need very hot water to get any action from my yeast. My sister lives on the coast and uses warm water. If you are not getting your yeast to proof try adjusting temperature.
        Feb. 12, 2011 12:14 am
        Last week I baked my first two loaves of wheat bread. I gifted one of the loaves to my teacher friend and she gave me a gold star! Before baking I read about beaking bread in Joy of Cooking cookbook. It talks about standard bread ingredients paralleling them each to characters in a theatrical production and explains what the roles are of each ingredient. This was extremely helpful and diminished some of the fears I was having. Highly recomend bread bakers take in that writing in Joy of Cooking before baking your first bread. Love serving the home made fresh bread as I know what's in it and saves money and gas and just tastes so much better! Yeehaw it's FUN!
        Mar. 22, 2011 9:36 am
        I make this recipe at least twice a month. Its PERFECT AS WRITTEN. Honestly I dont even measure my water any longer. It can be pretty warm as by thr time U add remainder of ingred. And start your machine its cooled off. I also add an extra 1/8 tsp yeast for better raising. LOVE this recipe!!!!
        Mar. 22, 2011 9:23 pm
        Why do you have to spend 10 minutes looking for a print button or 'add' to my recipe box on this or many articles. Great article, but how in the h.... can I print it??
        Mar. 23, 2011 10:18 am
        I tried to make a loaf of yeast bread, but the bread didn't rise at all. I'm sure that the yeast was active. I suspect that my problem was that the room was simply not warm enough. Not sure my laundry room would be warm enough, either, so I doubt that running the dryer would help. Any suggestions? (I even put the bowl on a heating pad in front of the fireplace, and had no luck)! HELP!
        Mar. 25, 2011 11:32 pm
        My favorite place to raise bread dough is in the oven. I turn it on at about 250 degrees F for just 2 or 3 minutes then turn it off when I first start mixing all the ingredients. When I put the metal mixing bowl in the oven (with dough lightly coated in extra virgin olive oil & covered with a damp, clean dish towel (100% cotton) I turn the light on in the oven and leave it's door cracked open by placing the handle of a long-handled WOODEN spoon in the door. After the short pre-heating at 250 F then turning on the oven light it's the perfect temperature to raise dough. Of course, once that's done, you MUST take it out while preheating the oven for BAKING the bread. This can be done while you are punching the dough down and shaping the loaves. I hope this helps you.
        Mar. 25, 2011 11:40 pm
        Try making sourdough rye bread! It's fantastic! And you usually can't buy it at even the fanciest bakeries! Homemade only! Of course only half of the flour used should be rye, the rest all-purpose flour. Use sourdough starter as usual, but be sure to add the caraway seeds. Also, sourdough makes THE BEST EVER, tangy pizzas! Try making a sourdough pizza crust sometime, it'll become your favorite!
        Apr. 12, 2011 10:15 pm
        Cooking and baking is a science and one should approach it as such. Always read your recipe and understand it before beginning. Be sure to measure ingredients correctly, using the appropriate measuring tools: liquids use liquid measuring devices, dry ingredients use dry measuring devices. Dry ingredients should be leveled off. A liquid measuring cup should be on a flat surface and one looks at it at eye level. Carefully follow the recipe and handle the dough as the recipe states. If you do this, you should not have too many problems. Changing ingredients, or amount of an ingredient is one of the major reasons for failure. Bread has to be raised in a warm, not hot atmosphere. Covering with a clean kitchen towel is best. If you live in a low humidity area, you might dampen it, but it should not be wet. When baking, be sure that the oven temperature is accurate, use a thermometer made for this purpose if unsure, to check it. If you still have problems, you might consider buying a br
        Apr. 12, 2011 10:22 pm
        Oh, I forgot to add, one should use bread flour, not all purpose flour. All purpose will give the bread a different texture. All purpose is fine for quick breads like biscuits.
        May 3, 2011 9:12 pm
        For those of you who have had problems with dense loaves that don't rise or have "fluff" .. This dough enhancer is amazing!! I bake bread every week, and also I am one of the communion bread bakers for my church. Use one TBS per cup of whole wheat flour. I omitted the Pectin because the Pectin I had contained Citric Acid and that along with the Ascorbic acid would have made it too lemony. This is GREAT stuff!!
        Jul. 1, 2011 5:14 am
        I'm baking bread loafs using the loaf tins. Somehow after finished baking, the bread had sprung up and gotten stuck on the lid of the baking tin, making it impossible to open the lid. do you have any tips regarding that? Thank you.
        Jul. 11, 2011 5:19 am
        Hello everyone, I am a "try any new food" kind of cook. Just absolutely love this site. Can anyone help me? I found THE BREAD RECIPE! and yes, I forgot to save it, can't even remember the name. Not helpful I know. What I do remember is that it uses 12cups of flour, no egg, melted butter, 6teaspoons of sugar, 3teaspoons of salt, milk and 2/12 cups of warm water. Ring a bell anyone?
        Jul. 11, 2011 7:42 am
        I would like to increase a pizza dough recipe to make about 6 pizzas, my question is do I need to increase the yeast as well? I have heard it is not necessary but don't know for sure. Please help.
        Jul. 19, 2011 3:04 pm
        My first-ever loaf of yeast bread is now cooling on the counter, looking and smelling wonderful! I have wanted to try my hand at baking bread for a while, but I was put off by the perception that it would be too difficult for an inexperienced baker like myself. But after perusing Allrecipes articles and reader comments (thanks for the tips, folks!)I felt like I understood the process well enough to give it a shot. I tried out the "Good 100% Whole Wheat Bread" recipe on this site, which is a bread machine recipe, but I was able to adapt it to handmade using the directions in this article. It worked beautifully, and I can't wait to sink my teeth into a slice of my very own bread!
        Sep. 7, 2011 4:45 am
        Ever since I got a bread machine a few years ago, I haven't made bread by hand. The only bread I'll make by hand anymore is Finnish coffee bread (pulla) because the loaves have to be braided. In my experience, you can never knead bread dough too much (although perhaps some breads are more delicate than others, I don't know). The more you knead, the fewer air bubbles in your dough and the result will be a smoother, tighter bread texture. As for liquid temperature for yeast, I've usually found anywhere from 110-115 degrees to be perfect. Ninety degrees sounds awfully cold to me. Don't know where Cuisinart got that temperature from.(?)
        Sep. 7, 2011 5:22 am
        A professional baker told me fresh yeast freezes very well. I stared freezing yeast ,since it is hard to come by in my area. Great info you post, thank you.
        Sep. 8, 2011 7:49 pm
        I learned to bake bread when I was 12 now I am 66. I use a large stainless steel bowl to knead in; it allows me to make a 1/4 turn with each kneading stroke and makes the whole job smoother. I use a 2" natural bristle paint brush to apply oils, butter, etc, to bowls, loaves, and baking tins. I never miss a corner. Oh I also clean my bowl with water and fingers, no dough in my sponges, scrubbies or cloths.
        Sep. 11, 2011 6:31 pm
        I have a shoe rack that came with my dryer. I turn the dryer on while making the bread dough to get it warm. Then put bread dough in a bowl covered with a clean towel on the shoe rack to rise. Works everytime. I have even turned dryer on for a few seconds to rewarm machine before rising time has ended.
        Sep. 15, 2011 1:18 pm
        I have been grinding my own wheat berries into flour and baking whole wheat bread which is out of this world, but the top never rises. It rises 2x then when I bake it, during the baking process it goes flat-what's with that? Help please....
        Sep. 18, 2011 10:58 am
        Help please.....most of the raisin bread recipes call for a pkg of yeast, but I have jar yeast...would I just do the recipe on the jar instead of getting the packets?
        Sep. 19, 2011 7:22 pm
        I've been trying to make a decent loaf for several years. They all come out dense and heavy with an unappitizing crust. I see that I am not alone in that.I have followed several tutorials to the letter with the same results.Will the addition of gluten help? I didn't know about spritzing the oven so maybe that will help too. Thanks for the encouragement in "Baking Yeast Breads" John
        Sep. 22, 2011 4:26 pm
        this is the first time I've read all these posts. I have baked thank God with some success yeast breads. French Breads, rolls & some sweet breads. This site has given me some great ideas. I think I may also have a good tip here. there is on the market where better Kitchen & cooking things are sold a double square pan that you place in the lowest shelf of your oven, you place hot water in the bottom pan, the top of it covers most of it and leaves areas for steam to form while baking. this is perfect for baking break, for baking meats you don't want to have dried up etc. The french bread came out perfection with a nice crust on the outside and wonderfully delicious on the inside. T.Y. for all your tips.
        Sep. 22, 2011 4:28 pm
        Oh, I forgot to ask, I have now bought this proofing bowl, because I wish to have this proof for several days to make different types of breads as I desire them...I'm still a bit in the dark as to how to keep building on this proof. Can someone help me out? Also, how much of this proof do I use when baking say one or two loaves of bread?
        Oct. 6, 2011 6:45 am
        When using instant yeast and the recipe calls for 2 pkg of dry yeast what is the equivelant?
        Oct. 11, 2011 10:40 pm
        Can anyone tell me why my bread raises perfectly on the first rise, then the second after its shaped it falls flat? It doubles, but flat on the pan. I have tried different recipes with the same results. Please help!
        Oct. 11, 2011 10:41 pm
        @PUN About 2 1/4 teaspoons is equivelant to a pkg of yeast.
        Oct. 12, 2011 3:50 pm
        I do not have a bread machine, but I am wondering if I can use the yeast labeled for machines in place of recipes that call for instant yeast? All I can find here is dry yeast, cake yeast or bread machine yeast, Any help would be appreciated.
        Oct. 16, 2011 4:47 pm
        how long do i let my homemade starter sit before feeding?
        Oct. 27, 2011 9:46 am
        In some of the bread machine recipes, it calls for adding all liquids 1st and then adding flour etc. Then it says to make a well in flour and add yeast. It does not state that the yeast should be in the water or put in dry. I am certain it should be mixed with warm water 1st, but I don't want to make error by not doing it right. Can anyone help?
        Nov. 16, 2011 6:02 am
        So many people are confused about how to tell when bread is done and it is so easy; insert an instant read thermometer in the center and when it reads 190 degrees it is done perfectly. Also, a food processor will knead the dough in 45 seconds saving time and trouble. Just be sure it is a good one. I use a cuisinart 14 cup model but my favorite way to make bread is in my bread machine. Just throw the ingredients in, hit dough cycle, walk away and in 90 minutes it is ready to shape and bake in the oven. (As they say, a lazy man finds an easier way!) A bread machine can be bought for $50-60 anywhere but a dirty little secret is they are all over the place at yard sales for $10 or 15 in almost new condition. People buy or get them as gifts and when the thrill wears off, they sit on the shelf til the next sale. As for yeast, I buy mine at a restaurant supply in 1# bags for $8, keep a small amount in the fridge and the rest in the freezer til needed. It will keep in the fridge for ages an
        Nov. 16, 2011 6:16 am
        I should have mentioned the bread machine does all the work, kneading AND rising so it makes bread making foolproof by eliminating a lot of the guesswork involved and which a lot of people are consused about. Mike
        Nov. 16, 2011 2:56 pm
        I having been trying to make Cinnamon rolls. I don't know what I'm doing wrong. They come out Dry. I try putting more Margarine in the middle and that doesn't work. Help!
        Nov. 16, 2011 5:23 pm
        please comment on rising on ice, I would like to make my dinner rolls ahead by a few days, can I freeze the formed rolls and defrost, let rise and bake on the day of the dinner. Can I do this with any roll recipe? Or do I have to wait till 24 hrs. before and let rise in the refrigerator? Thanks for your help.
        Nov. 17, 2011 9:17 am
        cook 409 If you want to make ahead, do everything including the first rise then freeze. On the day of the dinner, set out early to come to room temp and wait for the second rise, usually a few hrs.Bake as usual. If you have time, a long slow (day or two) rise in the refrigerator gives any baked good a much better flavor.
        Nov. 17, 2011 9:21 am
        Brytiz, bread machine yeast is instant or quick rise yeast and it doesn't need proofing. Regular yeast has to be proofed in warm water. Even when baking by hand,if you have instant yeast you can skip the proofing, just mix everything together and knead.
        Nov. 17, 2011 9:28 am
        Anetski,bread machine yeast can be used for instant.I may be imagining things but I feel regular yeast gives a better flavor. If all you have is regular, warm the liquid in your recipe to 100-110 add yeast,and let proof then follow the recipe as written. I add the sugar in with the proofing yeast because yeast loves it and activates quicker, but it's not necessary.
        Nov. 17, 2011 9:31 am
        shellie73, I used to have that trouble because I let it rise too much the second time. I only let the dough get about 1- 11/2 inches above the rim of the pan before baking.There are other reasons, but this was what I was doing wrong.
        Nov. 17, 2011 9:37 am
        JSL,if baking whole wheat bread, the addition of wheat gluten gives the loaf a lighter texture and is amazing stuff, be careful, don't use too much or your loaf gets huge...LOL. If baking white bread,in the wet or humid months I use dough enhancer.I get mine from the Amish bulk store but you can also get it from King Arthur's web site and it really helps. Again, follow the directions and it's a good idea to score the loaf if you use enhancers.
        Nov. 18, 2011 11:32 am
        I used to buy a wonderful Cranberry/Walnut bread at a local bakery. They moved or went out of business or something. I started looking for recipies. No luck, so I started reading the ingredience on loves of similar breads. I began trying to make my own. I used white, wheat,rye, and barley flours. Finally, I got it to come out looking and tasting the same as the one I used to buy. The only problems were, the dough sticking to my hands while kneading, and the loaf coming out well risen but wide and kind of flat. Is the solution, less moisture in the dough? I worry about the bread being dry. Right now, it comes out just right.
        Nov. 21, 2011 10:27 am
        The best improvement to my breads was made by allowing bread to rise for 6 to 8 hours in refrigerator. Then bring to room temperature for an hour before baking in oven. To CMSY. Look up BARF diet. It's fantastic. For a cooked recipe check world reknowned veterinarian, Michael Fox's website for dog food recipes. But I can tell you that dogs are very near wolves and their diets are mainly meat with a little grass, etc. Anyone who tells you otherwise has not seen the improvements in health I have seen. You can also check Joe Mercola's website for the veteriarian he uses on the website. She's great also.
        Dec. 17, 2011 4:26 am
        I prewfer the home baked breads to the store bought so I always buy the yeast in the jar as I do not find the 3 pack to last to make enough bread when I start baking bread. My Paternal grandma use to knead 12 loaves of bread at a time because she had herself and Grandpa and 11 children plus providing for other related families. I said Grandma could do 12 loaves at a time so I can do it too even though the recipe has been cut down to 2 loaves. both Grandmas we that way to feed relatives that did not have food to cook or did not know how. I was too young to Learn much from my bread making Grandma because cancer took her when I was 7. I had more time with my Maternal Grandma and I was riight under foot to learn whether she was doing cornbread or cakes or pies or churning her own butter or making buttermilk or saving the crem for toppng desserts. One time Grandma told mee Had learned enough to get up and make meat and biscuits for the men to get them off to work and the kids off to s
        Jan. 1, 2012 8:28 am
        My bread is awsome toasted but just using it as a sandwich it taste yeasty to me. I use a yeast cube, 3/4 yeast to 10-11 flour, sugar, salt, hot water. checked temp around 110. any suggestons.
        Jan. 10, 2012 8:38 am
        I have been baking since I was 11 yrs old. Bread is my passion. I buy yeast by the pound at Sams Club. I freeze part of it and keep a small sealed jar at the back (coldest) part of my refrig. I measure a scant tablespoon for each yeast needed. Sometimes I bake bread 4 or 5 times a week. (I am 80 yrs old and a widow) You can always share home made bread with a relative or friend.
        Jan. 14, 2012 9:45 am
        I have been baking bread for a couple of years and I use a KitchenAid mixer. I have even ground my own whole wheat flour but am now using Spelt Flour which has a more digestible gluten for those who are trying to reduce gluten. I found if I add a dough enhancer that helps the elasticity of the whole wheat. 1cp Soy Lethicin 1T ground ginger 1T Vitamin C crystals At 2-3 tsp of this to your mix (for 2 loaves) and it helps the texture. It is a little crumbly so I'm going to try to add a couple tsp of olive oil. Thanx for that tip!
        Jan. 24, 2012 7:28 pm
        Lately I'm enjoying making pizza for my family & friends. They rave about it. But........the center of the dough does not seem to bake through. I use cookie sheets. I've got round flat pizza stones but don't use them. Not much luck there. What can I do to make the center of the pizza bake evenly? I bake at 450 degrees lowest part of oven. Many thanks.
        Jan. 26, 2012 5:43 am
        how long do you need to knead bread dough with a kitchen aid mixer, or does this not work? I never can put the amount of flour in my mix as it becomes do dry, should I add more liquid?
        rolando r. mortel 
        Feb. 8, 2012 5:17 pm
        now that instant active yeast is very popular, how many times do i have to rise my dough, is it the same as the regular active yeast.
        salesman tony 
        Feb. 26, 2012 1:08 pm
        If you bake much at all, yeast by the pound at Sam's club (Or any other club / wholesaler) is a LOT cheaper.
        Short blonde! 
        Feb. 29, 2012 8:29 am
        I've been bread making for more years than I want to say My specialty is Swedish Tea rings made for all big Christmas gifts. I make them for days on end....using Kitchen Aid for kneading. Any questions, write me.
        Apr. 23, 2012 12:26 pm
        Love this article. Great help for bakers of all skill levels. I also love that members can come in and post questions with other members helping out by giving answers. Kind of like a mini buzz. lol
        May 8, 2012 12:22 pm
        Where has this article been all my life!!! I am very timid about baking with yeast, so this information really answers all of my questions! I love that it explains the different types of yeasts and their conversions :)
        Jun. 3, 2012 6:40 am
        I would like to know if you have a recepes for making bread the old fashion way, with your hand not machine. I have been basking bread the old way and sometimes the bread turns out not that high and sometimes it goes turn out, there are not large loaf of bread .
        Jun. 23, 2012 3:30 pm
        I thought I saw yesterday a conversion of regular goods made of flour to gluten-free baking. Several friends at our church are very sensitive to gluten, and I really need a conversion that substitutes for the gluten. Can someone help, please?
        Jul. 14, 2012 4:44 pm
        Trooper Davis: Check your oven. Sounds like bad heat circulation
        Jul. 31, 2012 5:31 am
        I need help! I am learning how to make bread. I have made it several times using lots of tips but nothing has helped. The bread it great out of the over but once it sets I could use it for a boat anchor! What am I doing wrong?
        Aug. 20, 2012 11:07 am
        i use the package yeast so if a recipe calls for 2 1/4 teaspoons how many packages is that?
        Aug. 29, 2012 5:12 pm
        I use bread machine making bread two times only. Use warm water, sugar and yeast mix together first is doing fool proof to me, but it taste yeasty. How can I solve this problem?
        Sep. 19, 2012 12:29 pm
        I am trying to make your multigrain bread recipe. I don't have a bread machine. I followed the first review on the recipe because she also omitted and replaced a couple of things to make it a true multigrain. I like that idea. However it alls for bread machine yeast. The review didn't specify if she used a different yeast or just used the extra cup of flour and that was it. Please let me know whether to use yeast or not and if so how much yeast and which kind. Thanks
        Oct. 25, 2012 2:03 am
        When you get a yeasty taste in the bread its because you use too much yeast and a short rising. I use a small amount of yeast because" a little leaven(yeast) leavens the whole loaf"..I also crush a 50 mgm tab of vit C and add that. It makes all the difference to the texture.I use strong flour, which has a higher gluten content.I knead my dough at night and put it in an oiled plastic bag in the fridge overnight and bake the next day.The long rising produces an alchohol which conditions the bread and I never have a yeasty taste in my bread.
        Nov. 3, 2012 2:32 pm
        I have found that if you turn on the oven light and let the dough rise in the oven that it stays at about 105 degrees which seems to work fine
        Nov. 19, 2012 7:20 pm
        I am new to this and just made my first batch of sourdough. I want to bake loafs in the oven. What temp and how long? What should I bake it to? Thanks so much, Diana
        Auggie doggie dad 
        Jan. 22, 2013 4:33 am
        Hello e1 I love making bread I use a spritzer to spray into the oven for a nice crust I also make my own spaghetti I use semolina flour and eggs for that I also use a combination of my Kitchenaide mixer and my hands for kneading never too long on the machine more by hand and I use a long handled scraper to get the flour off the bowl's edge along with a regular scraper to pick up or adjust the dough off my board Everything else is pretty much as it is written above Just be confident at what you do Bread making is great fun, Always check the experation date on any yeast this is very important for best results
        jean t. Nichol 
        Jan. 23, 2013 6:59 am
        Enjoyed this read I make bread have even sold my bread and everyone LOVED it. Still bake I got a bread machine for Xmas. Few years back from my girls used it ever since I put everything called for in machine ans on last rise I remove dough knead foe about 10 minutes let it rise in a large greased pan then cut with a knife make loves or buns or cinnamon rolls put in baking pan let rise about 1/2 to 3/4. Hour bake at 400 f for 10 minutes then lower heat to 350 for another 25 minutes tap bottom of loaf if hollow sound it is done if not put back in over upside down on baking pan for 5 more minutes that should do it LOVELY eating mine NEVER fail have fun baking is such a wonderful craft I love baking anything thanks for all your comments
        jean t. Nichol 
        Jan. 23, 2013 7:10 am
        21/2tsp yeast= 1packet and this amount can make 1 loaf or 10 loves of bread I use to do all my bread by hand until my girls got me the machine now I use it as we get OLDER we don't seem to have the strength to knead as much so let your machine do the work it is still your baking just less hard work I used to make 10 to 20 loafs at a time for my friend with 8 children she didn't know how to make bread so I helped her out it was wonderful to do that also taugh my daughter how to make bread she does it all the time now and loves doing it just jump in and TRY you will get it sooner or later it is great
        Feb. 8, 2013 11:03 pm
        Anyone ever bake with almond flour, I have had some success baking cookies. Trying to find healthier way of baking using almond flour, smart balance butter. trying to find a way to replace sugar.
        Feb. 16, 2013 1:54 pm's where I need help. The texture of a loaf of white bread that I make should be such that I can fold a slice and it will not break in two. Like a taco shell. Not crumbly but pliable. Does anyone have the answer?
        May 24, 2013 7:02 pm
        Slicing Baked Bread. I Let It Cool First, Then I use My Electric Meat Slicer. Works great every time.
        May 31, 2013 4:28 pm
        When I go to proof my yeast I put water in a pan on the stove and warm to about 100 degrees F, then turn off the burner. Then I go ahead and turn on the oven. After mixing and kneading the dough I put it in an oiled bowl and set it back on the stove where I had warmed the water to rise. Works perfectly for me everytime!
        Sep. 12, 2013 5:29 pm
        The first sentence of this article is "Bread baking is both an art and a science." They forgot about luck and magic.
        Sep. 5, 2014 9:24 am
        Hi everyone... Ive got an issue...I want to bake Mexican bolillo bread..the first time I didn't proof my yeast...I simply added to the flour..I have seen video where they say its instant yeast...yet theyproof itI've also seen where they just add it to the flower I'm not sure which is this is but it works for first loaf was harder than it's supposed to be and the second loaf the same except the second love rose and it was done on the inside it just was too hard though out our side and so I'm wondering what is my problem why am I getting this kind of result from using Big East is it and I'm using too much Sun recommend that I put sugar in to me but I need to know what what am I doing wrong.
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