Turkey Tips: Buying and Thawing a Turkey Article - Allrecipes.com
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Turkey Tips: Buying and Thawing a Turkey

Want some tips on how to pick out and thaw a turkey? We've got helpful hints for getting your meal off to a great start.

Don't be stuck with a turkey that is too small for your gathering or still frozen the morning of your feast!

Use these guidelines to avoid those mistakes:

How to Buy a Turkey


Things to think about:

  • Size. Count on 1 to 1 ½ pounds of turkey for each guest, depending on whether you want plenty of leftovers or just a few. You can also choose to buy two medium-sized turkeys rather than one giant one, to cut the cooking time. This also allows you to cut one turkey for serving while the whole bird is displayed on the table.

  • Fresh or Frozen? This depends on your needs. A fresh turkey costs more but doesn't need thawing. Some butchers also offer “heritage” breeds of turkey. (You should buy it no more than one or two days ahead of time--it's best to order in advance from your butcher or grocery store meat department). Frozen turkeys are less expensive and available year-round, but must be thawed before cooking. 


How to Thaw a Turkey


There are two safe methods for thawing a turkey:

  • In the refrigerator. This is the preferred method, but can be difficult to arrange with a fully stocked fridge. Clear some space and allow one day for every 5 pounds of meat: a 15-pound turkey will require three days to thaw thoroughly.

  • Submerged in cold water. Using your sink or a bucket, keep the turkey in its original wrapper and make sure it is completely covered with cold water. You may need to cover the turkey with a plate and place some heavy cans on top of it to keep it totally submerged. It is vital for the sake of safety that you change the cold water every 30 minutes. Using this method, it will take approximately 30 minutes per pound to thaw a turkey.


It is also possible to use a combination of the two methods--use the fridge for the first two days of thawing, and the sink on the day before Thanksgiving, when the refrigerator fills up with other holiday dishes.

Read answers to the most frequently asked Thanksgiving cooking questions.

Comments
Oct. 15, 2009 9:27 am
"You can also choose to buy two medium-sized turkeys rather than one giant one :snip:" If I'm serving a large crowd, I always go the two turkey route, tho I usually buy the two smallest turkeys in the store. Extra stuffing cooked in the bird, extra dark meat and extra gravy. yummy I cook one the day before, as it actually reheats well in the microwave or can be set aside to be used to make sandwiches (traditional second "meal" while watching football after the big sit down event.) Smaller birds tend to be more moist and tender and tho I always "overcook" them, I've yet to make any that have been dry and/or tough. My test for done is a light tug on a leg. If it falls off the turkey is done, specially if the thigh falls off too. I've done the slow roast at 325 degrees, but have also cooked them with a roaster cover on at 425 degrees. A little water (1/2 cup) in the covered roaster adds an aspect of some steaming to the cooking process. I cook it with the cover off for
 
Nov. 8, 2009 4:35 pm
I like the 2 bird thing, we have 3 wild birds in the freezer. There about 14 lbs ea. I can cook one the day before and one that morning.I have a lot of respect for people who have the practice in. This helped me out, for my wife is a nut and we won't get a bird cooked if i don't start things. Thanks again
 
Nov. 18, 2009 8:08 am
Question: Microwave ovens usually have a program for thawing frozen foods. Is such a procedure safe and useful for a small (12 lb) turkey? It would take about three hours.
 
BlueGhost 
Nov. 21, 2009 4:20 am
John: I was a executive chef for 30 years and must tell you: If you want to cook one turkey a day ahead that is fine but, that turkey must be removed from the bone before cooling. The reason for this is possible salmonella poisoning. As the turkey cools the bones remain hot. Their cooling takes to long to go through critical temperatures when bacteria grow fastest. Personally my turkey is completely off of the bones before it ever sees the table. One other issue is stuffing the turkey: When a turkey has been stuffed the stuffing is the last to cook. While the turkey is cooking the blood frm the turkey is draining into the stuffing again going through very dangerous temperatures. I hope I was of some help,John. Capt, As in the above letter we are again talking about critical temperatures. The microwave is never a friend when it comes to thawing. The safest way is by the refrigerator. Your 12# turkey should take 2 days to thaw. 3 would be better. Frankly, you don't want your fami
 
Norma 
Nov. 21, 2009 9:42 am
Blue Ghost: Thank you for your valuable information. This could prevent wholesale food poisoning affecting whole families.
 
G8rGrl 
Nov. 23, 2009 2:40 pm
Does it make a difference if the turkey is a Tom or a hen?
 
G8rGrl 
Nov. 23, 2009 2:40 pm
Does it matter if the turkey is a tom or a hen?
 
Nov. 23, 2009 3:42 pm
I'm confused about thawing and brining. I have a 16 lb. bird which means 3 days for thawing. My brining recipe (http://allrecipes.com/Recipe/Out-of-this-World-Turkey-Brine/Detail.aspx) says to soak the turkey for 3 days. Does this mean that I need 6 days to prep my bird for the big day? 6 days thawed just seems like a long time for poultry, but I'm new to cooking, so I could be wrong.
 
kuddlykatie 
Nov. 23, 2009 5:34 pm
Is 4 days too long to thaw a 13 lb. bird?
 
billsmith1948 
Nov. 23, 2009 10:23 pm
BlueGhost, my family has baked turkeys for 50 years and have never gotten sick. You're saying to not even let the turkey set awhile before carving, which is ridiculous. And your "bloody" description of stuffing is gross. You sound like one of those safety freaks. Like in bicycle forums, no matter what the discussion, a safety freak always obsessively jumps in and screams "be sure to wear a helmet!" You do what you want but some of us will do what has always worked.
 
billsmith1948 
Nov. 23, 2009 10:24 pm
No, Katie, 4 days is not too long if the bird is refrigerated. Mine is 10 lbs. and will be thawing about 5 days.
 
Nov. 24, 2009 11:56 am
Can someone answer Kate9980, since I have the same issue. Don't ask, I live overseas and the butcher never gets my order right (whole turkeys are rare here). He just dropped of my 17 lb turkey, and its frozen. I also brine it for 24 hours, as per Martha Stewart. Can these two procedures be combined? Can I brine out of the fridge for a bit to speed up the defrost, or is that just crazy talk? Thanks.
 
Daphne 
Nov. 24, 2009 1:47 pm
I left my frozen 12 lb turkey out on the kitchen table for three hours. Now it is in the refrigerator. This happened before I found out about thawing turkeys safely. Is it safe to eat? Thanks.
 
Nov. 24, 2009 8:39 pm
Kate9980 - I don't have an answer for you but maybe you can post the same question where you found the brine recipe? I am going to brine our turkey for 24 hours and will be doing it on the last day of thawing. maybe you could start the brining on the 3rd day of thawing to cut down to a total of 5 days? Since it takes so long to thaw, I think it's ok. Billsmith1948 - Amen. Thank you for saying exactly what I was thinking when I read BlueGhost's post.
 
Ellen 
Nov. 24, 2009 9:58 pm
I get the whole food safety thing, but it would seem as long as it takes to actually cook the turkey and bacteria would be killed during the cooking process... as long as its thoroughly cooked. If this isn't so, why? It works for all other meats...
 
swissmiss8 
Nov. 25, 2009 12:56 am
.....It is my understanding that one should not brin FROZEN turkeys. You can do it but it is useless as commercial frozen birds are treated in salted water during the freezing process. (I can quote you sources on that is you like) Happy Thanksgiving!
 
Robert 
Nov. 25, 2009 11:18 am
First time making Turkey for Thanksgiving. Every place I read said for thawing to thaw in the fridge for 1 day per 5 lbs. I have a small 9 lb bird that has been in the fridge since Tuesday AM about 8AM. So according to the day/5lbs which I read, that would be a little under 2 days. Right now at 2pm on Wednesday, it still seems really hard and frozen. Is this normal? Should it thaw by tomorrow? Let me know because I dont want it to be frozen tomorrow morning. Thanks!
 
Amy571 
Nov. 25, 2009 11:59 am
I am in the same boat as Robert, lol. My turkey is just a 7lb turkey breast, its been in the fridge since monday night, and today it is still hard as a rock. It has 24 more hours so I hope it is done by then!
 
casperwitch 
Nov. 25, 2009 7:52 pm
Hi All I have been cooking turkey for years. Yes I am am worried about salmonella, however the best way to avoid it it to do this: If you have a frozen turkey you can thaw it 2 ways: in the freezer which is best if you buy it like a 2 days to a week ahead, since there is no other place it should be. And in water. I used to buy my turkey about 4 days ahead and leave in in the fridge to thaw, then the night before I used to brine it. (with salt water and herbs) Now I just buy it the night before frozen and soak it for 30 minutes per pound and refresh the water every 30 minutes. So I usually get a 12 pounder, which has me doing this for 6 hours. I start at 10 pm till 4 am. The finally soak I brine it until 11am. Then I cook the stuffing and stuff it and season the bird with butter and herbs, and cook it in a Reynolds Oven Bag - Turkey Size (It helps on the clean up and keeps the turkey super moist)and BAKE until meat thermometer reads 180°F, 2 to 2 1/2 hours for a 12 to 16 lb.
 
casperwitch 
Nov. 25, 2009 7:56 pm
And make sure after you have put the bird in the oven Lysol your sick and water ever you used that has touch the turkey then just clean up with soap and water, just as a just in case. I usually lysol my sink once I'm done with any meats or poultry to be sure. Plus when you clean while you cook its less to do after. So you can rest after a crazy fun yummy night.
 
Nov. 25, 2009 11:14 pm
Sounds like all of you have things well in hand. LOL! I just checked my 15 pounder and it is STILL FROZEN! It has been in the frige since Sunday! I will do the 30 min route so i will be up all night changing WATER!
 
Dan Motes 
Nov. 26, 2009 11:41 am
I have been cooking turkey all my life and you can thaw it on the counter the first day, refrigerate three days and thaw in with a thermometer inserted into the breast the day before cooking, When the thermometer reaches 35 Deg. F refrigerate and cook the same or the next day.
 
Dan Motes 
Nov. 26, 2009 11:43 am
By the way no need for all the water all done in refrig and the counter. Ain't been sick yet from turkey, 65 years old.
 
Lee Ann 
Nov. 28, 2009 12:04 am
This is the first time I have bought a frozen turkey and it's been in the fridge since Sunday and I'm making it today( Saturday because I had to work on Thanksgiving) is it still okay to make it today, my mom told me to take it out on Sunday and she said it would be okay to make it on Saturday, is this really true?
 
Lee Ann 
Nov. 28, 2009 12:08 am
Oh I for got, it's a 24 pounder
 
Lee Ann 
Nov. 28, 2009 12:09 am
This is the first time I have bought a frozen turkey and it's been in the fridge since Sunday and I'm making it today( Saturday because I had to work on Thanksgiving) is it still okay to make it today, my mom told me to take it out on Sunday and she said it would be okay to make it on Saturday, is this really true? Also its a 24 pounder
 
haishah 
Mar. 23, 2010 6:41 pm
This will be my first time to brined my turkey before roasting...so do i need to thaw my turkey first before brinning or just do brinning without thawing it... I'm roasting my turkey this saturday for my son's birthday..tq
 
Nov. 14, 2010 5:15 am
Every year, I buy a 24 lb. frozen turkey. Keep it in its wrapping and put it in the fridge, the Thursday before Thaxgiving Day. On Monday (yes 4 1/2 days later) I unwrap and clean the turkey. I have a stainless steel, 5 gallon pot, that 1 add one quart of tap warm water with 2 cups of Kosher Salt and 3 cups of dark brown sugar. Stir until dissolved. Add 2 gallons of COLD tap water and stir. Put the cleaned turkey in this brine. Put on the top and seal top and 1/2 way down the sides with plastic wrap. Put the pot in the fridge Monday and let it brine until Thanxgiving Morning. I do not change the water or open the pot. My turkey is always succulent and so delicious. Putting the frozen turkey in one week before to start the thawing, is mandatory for a bird this size if u want to brine it. The salt in the brine is almost like a preservative. This is the easiest and best thawing method that I have found, thus far, over the years. Bon appetite!
 
wish6161 
Nov. 16, 2010 2:10 pm
for those who are concerned that they have had their turkeys in the fridge for several days and tomorrow is Thanksgiving and they are afraid that the bird may still be frozen by the "big day" you simply need to follow the "combination" method of thawing they mentioned in the above article. simply submerge your bird comnpletely in water either for a few hours if that's all you need or if it's huge and still feels like a rock do so before you go to bed and when you get up in the morning it will be thawed. Believe me, I used to trade cooking the bird with a neighbor who wasn't the best of cooks. The first time it was her turn she got a 20lb bird, only had it in the firdge for 3 days and then was supprized it was still frozen the night before thanksgiving. I had to scrub my tub and submerge the sucker in there since she didn't give it to me to deal with until 1000 at night. By 430 in the morning it was completely thawed and ready for prepping and slow roasting. Came out like a dream, no on
 
pksmom 
Nov. 16, 2010 7:23 pm
I am planning to cook two 10lb turkeys in the oven at the same time. How much extra time per pound will I need?
 
Wayne 
Nov. 17, 2010 3:20 am
Put the frozen bird in the roasting pan, place it in the sick and let cold water trickle over it. No need to change the water every 30 minutes!
 
Wayne 
Nov. 17, 2010 3:21 am
Put the frozen bird in the roasting pan, place it in the SINK and let cold water trickle over it. No need to change the water every 30 minutes
 
Nov. 17, 2010 4:33 am
We typically serve 120-150 people at the soup kitchen and have always cooked the birds the day before and boned them (due to space requirements). The bones go to the stock pot for a hard boil and mixed with other stock and bird drippings from the pan. Some of the stock is added to the pans as they come up to tempature (to maintain moisture)and the rest goes to the mashed potatoes and gravy. There have never been any complaints other than not enough room on the plate. Our birds are typically 20+ lbs ea, we do 8 or 9, so I also split them down the middle and remove the wing tips for stock with the necks and giblets. We do this every year on one stove and two in ovens; we only have about 3 hours to get it all ready to plate and serve on Thanksgiving day so roasting ahead is the only way.
 
BigTex 
Nov. 17, 2010 7:32 am
I would just like to add - that rather than cooking the stuffing inside the turkey- simply cook it in a skillet and user the juices left over from the turkey along with a little bit of melted butter. can't go wrong there - What replaces the stuffing inside the turkey you say? 2 apples and 2 oranges and a lemon - chopped/quartered. The citris juices will resonate from the inside out which makes for a juicy yummy turkey- I also use the turkey juices (Will have a citris twist) to make the gravy - Simply buy a few brown gravy or white gravy mixes of your choice - add nothing but the turkey juice and a dash of melted butter, garlic powder, and a dash of black pepper and salt. That will get some of the tastiest gravy ever!! As for thawing the turkey - Leaving it in the fridge for 3 days then leave it out at room temperature for a few hours, then allowing warm running water to complete the job is my preference. The warm running water is actually the cleaning and prepping of the tur
 
Cookie 
Nov. 17, 2010 4:29 pm
Yes, my 8 lbs.turkey will be in the frig for 5 days of thawing and cooked the day before we Destroy completely!
 
mikebdenver 
Nov. 22, 2010 9:16 pm
I thought I my turkeys were coming in fresh but they will be frozen. I will recieve it tuesday afternoon and it is 20-25lbs. How will it thaw in time...HELP.
 
Laine 
Nov. 23, 2010 5:29 am
Don't worry, Mike. It isn't actually necessary to thaw a frozen turkey at all before cooking. You can just unwrap it, rub it with seasoning and a bit of oil, and put it in the oven at 325. For a 20-lb. turkey, allow 8 hours for baking (about 50% longer than thawed). This method not only prevents any danger of salmonella, but also makes the entire turkey more moist. Since the breast has more mass, it thaws and cooks more slowly, so it is perfectly cooked, moist, beautifully browned, and flavorful at the same time the rest is. I know, it sounds crazy, but Google "cooking a turkey from frozen." I did, 4 turkeys ago, when I was faced with a solidly-frozen turkey on Thanksgiving morning. I'll never thaw another one. Happy Thanksgiving!
 
VIcky87 
Nov. 23, 2010 7:49 pm
This is my first year making a turkey. its almost 12 pounds and I just put it in the fridge to thaw! I have no idea what im doing but should it be unfrozen by tomorrow? And if I do the combination of thawing it after its unfrozen can i keep it in the fridge or does it go directly in the oven? Please I need help!
 
Roxi 
Nov. 23, 2010 11:20 pm
My Grandfather has cooked our turkey every year and has a funny but great way to thaw it. He takes the turkey and takes it out of the wraper and cleans it up as good as he can then puts it in the dishwasher for one cycle (with out dishes or soap lol) and by the time the cycle is done the turkey is perfect. We actually do it the on the day. We have been doing this for many years and we recomend it to anyone.
 
Laine 
Nov. 24, 2010 9:09 am
Vicky, check your turkey now. If it's partially thawed, but not completely thawed yet, immerse it in cold water - change it every hour or so - until bedtime. Then, dry it with paper towels, set it on a platter, and refrigerate it, uncovered, overnight. If it's bedtime when you notice it's still partially frozen, immerse it in water overnight. Above all, relax - it's not hard to roast a turkey, and it will be fine!
 
Nov. 28, 2010 4:19 pm
FYI if you thaw Turkey on a counter you are inviting germs and bacteria in to the meat. You have to Let it defrost in the fridge or in running water. You wont get sick right away it take a day up to a few days for the bacteria set in and have systems. The Danger Zone is 140F to 40F. Look up serve safe, take the course and learn a little. I believe that before you berate a Chef for his care in ones safety you should have your ducks in a row and ask yourself Great Grandma did it this way. That was way before the knew about worms in pork that can kill you. Most Chefs are college educated and should be respected for helpful hints to not have you in the ER on Christmas! So I say thank you to blue ghost to post very important information. I value you opinion and I thank you for helping ppl out! I too am a Chef!!! HAVE A SAFE AND HAPPY HOLIDAYS!
 
Ann 
Dec. 23, 2010 1:10 am
I bought a 17 pound frozen turkey and need it done by tomorrow dinner. How can I thaw it out, brine it, and cook it in 16 hours? Help!
 
qcaggie 
Dec. 24, 2010 10:58 am
Ann - follow what "casperwitch" wrote above. I copied it again for you here: Nov. 25, 2009 7:52 pm Hi All If you have a frozen turkey you can thaw it 2 ways: in the freezer which is best if you buy it like a 2 days to a week ahead, since there is no other place it should be. And in water. I used to buy my turkey about 4 days ahead and leave in in the fridge to thaw, then the night before I used to brine it. (with salt water and herbs) Now I just buy it the night before frozen and soak it for 30 minutes per pound and refresh the water every 30 minutes. So I usually get a 12 pounder, which has me doing this for 6 hours. I start at 10 pm till 4 am. The finally soak I brine it until 11am. Then I cook the stuffing and stuff it and season the bird with butter and herbs, and cook it in a Reynolds Oven Bag - Turkey Size (It helps on the clean up and keeps the turkey super moist)and BAKE until meat thermometer reads 180°F, 2 to 2 1/2 hours for a 12 to 16 lb. turkey, 2 1/2 to 3 hours for a
 
jackymason 
Dec. 25, 2010 5:40 am
Is there any harm in roasting a thawed turnkey, fresh or smoked at 250 degrees all night long? I make sure the turkey temperature is at least 180 degrees for the fresh and 165 degrees for the smoked turkey before removing it from the oven. Then removing the meaat form the bones while the meat is still hot? I have done this and the meaat is moist and falls right off the bones. I also do this for whole fresh hams when making pulled pork. But is this harmful?
 
Oct. 11, 2011 7:02 pm
There is a lot of mis-information about food borne illness out there, glad to see some sensible talk here. Just because "great granpa" did it that way does not mean it is safe for others to eat. Natives of Mexico drink the water, but you and I cannot without getting very sick. They are immune to the little bugs and we are not. Sometimes some people at the table have developed immunity or tolerance to certain bacteria while others at the same table have not. Certain populations are more at risk: the very young, the very aged, pregnant ladies, those who are fighting cancer, liver disease or have certain diseases like lupus, aids, etc. Instead of assuming that the food is safe for everyone because it's safe for the person with the most robust immune system, let's consider that we want the food to be safe for each person at our table. I am thankful for good health and hope to continue to enjoy that. I'm sure we are all thankful for healthy families, let's ensure that they stay tha
 
billy 
Nov. 4, 2011 8:51 am
I have a roaster one of the large white rosters you see at church lunches. How do I cook a turkey in this and how long per pound and at what temp. need your help.
 
sjensen686 
Nov. 19, 2011 3:53 pm
I have a 27lb turkey how long do i defrost it
 
Suziesavors 
Nov. 20, 2011 11:09 am
Like Laine said about a year ago, due to time limitations, I will probably just cook the turkey frozen. I do wonder, however, about the giblets, if any are inside. I see nowhere on my 9 lb. Butterball package, whether they are included or not? What say? Thanks.
 
sjc 
Nov. 20, 2011 12:44 pm
How many days may a turkey that has been thawed in the the refrigerator, remain in the refrigerator before it must be cooked in the oven?
 
newcook 
Nov. 22, 2011 5:27 pm
I bought my frozen 14 lb turkey Wed night. I have had it in the frig thawing since. This evening (Tues), 6 days later, I took the neck and giblets out to make stock. I've rewrapped the turkey in plastic and then foil and put back in the frig. All the juices drained into the pan that is wrapped up. Will my turkey be okay until I cook it in 2 days on Thursday? I had to run airport duty tomorrow and was worried I would run out of time to get some things done. If it is okay in the frig, rewrapped after all this time, please let me know. Thanks! New Cook.
 
Sunshyne298 
Dec. 17, 2011 3:29 pm
sjc.. A thawed turkey can remain in the refrigerator for 1 or 2 days before cooking.
 
Harley 
Nov. 21, 2012 7:04 am
I put a 24lb turkey in a large cooler in original packaging. I put the outdoor hose in the cooler and opened the drain so the trickle out equaled the trickle in for 12 hours. Then I went about my other work. works great!
 
leslie1818 
Nov. 21, 2012 4:50 pm
I thawed a 15 lb turkey in the fridge for two days now I have it in cold water how long do I need it to be in cold water to be thawed completly
 
GOURMETMOM 
Nov. 20, 2014 5:33 pm
I've read some things before, but never that you should carve as soon as it comes out the oven. I make a "perfect" turkey every Thanksgiving and Christmas. I have tried different "family secrets," etc. The best and my tried and true method: 1 day in the fridge for every 5 lbs as has been stated for thawing. Season as desired, whatever floats your boat or has been "in the family," (I use butter, onion, lemon, garlic and fresh herbs) cook at 220 for 10 mins, take it out and cover breast in bacon. Tent it with foil (shiny side up), turn oven to 180 and cook 1/2 hour per 2.20( almost 2 1/4 lbs). Baste it regularly, about every 1/2 hour, remove foil for the last 12 hour or so to get that golden color. A knife to the bottom of the thigh should tell you if it's done, being that the juices will run clear. I have found that the best turkeys rest (untouched, uncut, on a platter) for about as long as it was cooked, during this time it reabsorbs all of it's juices. Try it, you wont be disappointed
 
Rusty 
Nov. 25, 2014 4:20 pm
I have a 12lb Turkey that is still in the freezer. I plan to put it in a marinade tomorrow night. I can't do the water soak, as there won't be anyone home during the day tomorrow. Can I have the bird sitting in the sink for a couple hours to thaw enough to get the giblets out before letting it soak in the marinade overnight?
 
Nov. 26, 2014 11:46 am
I have to say that the "one day per 5 pounds" for defrosting is a guideline and not definitive. This is the third year (non-consecutively)that I've used the guidelines and the third time they were off. Maybe it has to do with the length of time the birds are in 'deep freeze', I don't know. This year I bought 2 - 10 pound birds, they've been in the refrigerator for over 24 hours and they are both still frozen solid. My refrigerator is set to the factory default setting, so it's not like my fridge is colder than most.
 
 
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