All About Flour Article -
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All About Flour

Wheat flour is the backbone of the baked goods we love.

The Two Types of Wheat

There are two types of wheat: hard and soft. The key difference between them is protein content. Hard wheat is higher in protein than soft wheat--and it is the protein that contains the gluten that allows breads and other baked goods to rise.

Where wheat is grown can determine protein content: Northwestern U.S. and western Canada produce hard wheat that's very high in protein, while the southern U.S. states grow a softer wheat with less protein.

    All-Purpose Flour

    All-purpose flour includes a happy balance of hard and soft flours. And as the name suggests, it is a type of flour that lets you make a wide variety of baked goods--cookies, cakes, muffins, quick breads, biscuits, and pie crusts--without having to stock up on multiple types of flour.

    One cup of AP flour = 4.5 oz (128 g)

    Bread Flour

    But with flour, one size doesn't always fit all. One type of flour is best for baking bread, another type for pastries. Bread, for example, benefits from a high-protein flour.

    When combined with water and developed by mixing and kneading, the gluten becomes elastic and stretches around gas bubbles produced by the yeast. When gas bubbles expand in the oven, the gluten goes along for the ride. The result is a nice fat loaf of bread.

    Interestingly, of all the grains, wheat is the only one that packs gluten-producing proteins. To rise properly, breads made with other grains (like rye, corn, or oats) must be fortified with wheat flour or gluten.

    Note: As a home baker, you can ignore language on bread flour labels saying "first clear flour," "patent flour," and "high gluten flour." You'll be fine with the blend of bread flour in any national brand.

    One cup of bread flour = 4.8 oz (136 g)

    Pastry Flour

    Pastry flour is a medium-protein flour that produces tender pie crusts. If you use a flour with too much protein, your pastry can become tough; too little, and the pastry can be brittle and hard to work with. Medium is just right.

    In a pinch, you can make your own version of pastry flour by combining one part cornstarch to two parts all-purpose flour.

    One cup of pastry flour = 4.25 oz (120 g)

    Cake Flour

    Cake flour is a lower-protein flour that's also bleached with chorine, which alters the structure of the starches and fats and makes the flour slightly acidic. Unfortunately, substituting all-purpose flour in recipes that have been specifically formulated for cake flour will not produce happy results. Always sift cake flour before using it in a recipe.

    One cup of cake flour = 3.9 oz (111 g)

    Whole Wheat Flour

    Whole wheat flour contains all of the nutrients found in the wheat kernel and results in dense, hearty baked goods. If 100% whole wheat bread tastes a little bit too healthy for you, try a ratio of half whole wheat, half bread flour.

    Note: You might need to adjust your liquids to hydrate the flour fully (use more water if you're adding whole wheat flour to a recipe, less if you're substituting bread flour for whole wheat).

    One cup of whole wheat flour = 4.25 oz (120 g)

    Self-Rising Flour

    Self-rising flour is used for quick breads, biscuits, muffins, and pancakes. It already contains baking powder, so don't need to add any leavening agents.

    To make your own self-rising flour, add 1½ tsp baking powder per cup of flour (or 5-7 g of baking powder per 100 g of flour).

    Bread Machine Flour

    Special bread machine flours are generally just high-protein flours, although some brands might contain dough conditioners like malted barley flour (diastatic malt powder), ascorbic acid, or lecithin.

    Bleaching and Bromating

    Freshly ground wheat might smell great, but it doesn't make an optimum loaf: as flour ages, it creates stronger gluten, resulting in a more elastic dough and a lighter loaf. Aging also changes the color of flour from pale yellow to white. Millers have sped up this aging process with chlorine and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) , which also helps the flour look whiter.

      More About Wheat

      The wheat berry is made up of bran, germ, and endosperm:

      • The bran is the hard outer shell that covers the wheat berry. An excellent source of fiber, the bran also contains most of the minerals. Because the bran has sharp edges, which interfere with gluten development, it is removed during milling--and then often added back in later.
      • The germ is the part of the grain that would become the plant. Wheat germ is very high in protein and B vitamins. It is removed in the milling process because its high fat content causes the flour to become rancid more quickly. Wheat germ should be stored in the refrigerator.
      • The endosperm is the food that the seed would consume on its way to becoming a plant. The flour that we use for baking, unless it is whole wheat, has had the germ and the bran removed. The remaining endosperm is composed mostly of starch and protein.

        Sep. 16, 2009 9:11 am
        I understand requiring a special flour for a special recipe, but its just plain old silly to go out and buy bread flour when you have all-purpose flour at home! I don't make cakes and bread often enough to justify buying special types of bread! They would just sit in the cabinet and get old. I have made bread without bread flour and cake (certain types) without using cake flour, and they have turned out perfectly fine!
        Oct. 24, 2009 3:58 am
        this is a great source of knowledge...
        Oct. 29, 2009 9:15 am
        Wonderful information we all need to know what the contents of what we consume is made of. I love my bread machine and have been experimenting with different flours for years now.
        Dec. 4, 2009 11:07 am
        I'm looking at an Irish recipe for fruitcake and it lists "cream flour". What is this?
        Dec. 7, 2009 5:59 pm
        thanks for that tip on the pastry flour, i worked in a bakery for years and am used to working with pastry flour and it is difficult to find in my area.
        Dec. 18, 2009 5:41 am
        Most flour brands give the wt of their flour on the side of the bags. They all differ. Is your measurements an average of most brands? I choose to weigh my flour.
        Dec. 19, 2009 6:18 am
        Dec. 19, 2009 6:15 am Is it o.k. to use bread flour for cookies and if so, what difference would it make in the texture, etc. I bought the flour by mistake and didn't realize it
        Dec. 22, 2009 3:21 am
        Thank you!!! I had a cookie book that told me when to use sr flour, and when not to. It is MIA. PS: I have deleted from my computer, this one is the only one!
        Dec. 31, 2009 4:08 pm
        Does it matter if I use self-rising flour to make bread that also has yeast in it?
        Jan. 6, 2010 3:22 am
        Interesting about all the different flours, I personally buy Spelt (wholemeal and plain) and use it in all my recipes - cakes, cookies, pizza, bread, scones. So far so good.
        Jan. 6, 2010 3:36 pm
        Is White whole wheat the same as whole wheat? can it replace whole wheat?
        Jan. 10, 2010 12:18 pm
        I am living Jamaica WI and there is a flour called "counter flour" can anyone advise the content of this flour and if I want to use it for bread I have to add more flour than what the recipe calls for. I have just made my first loaf of white bread and not quite what I expected. As bread flour and all purpose flour are more expensive here due to being imported, I would like to bake bread with the most common flour sold. I have looked on the internet and various sites seem to be confusing to me. I am asking anyone who may be an expert in this area or who has some experience in using this flour.
        Jan. 22, 2010 6:51 pm
        I bought multigrain bread flour. Does that cook like white or whole wheat flour?
        Jan. 25, 2010 7:57 am
        what is the best flour for pizza dough. also the best type to mix with corn flour or new england fried clams?
        Jan. 27, 2010 5:59 pm
        I have always had problems w/whole wheat flours. I spoon them into the measuring cup and level, but always have to adjust the liquids, usually adding 1-3 Tbs more. I noted the flour weights in this article and am going to try weighing my flour next time. Maybe this will take care of the different moisture contents. Thanks for a great basic article!
        Jan. 30, 2010 8:06 am
        This is more a ? than a comment. I used to work in a bakery many years ago & they used to put something in thier breads & muffins that kept them fresh longer. If anyone knows of what can be used please let me know. I'm sure many people would like to know.Contact me @ heavens Thanks to all those who post such delicious recipes.
        Feb. 20, 2010 1:29 pm
        which flour type is for pasta?
        Feb. 24, 2010 3:20 pm
        Great site. Am an avid bread baker, creating recipes as I go. I would like to begin using spelt flour in bread with a minimum of wheat. Does anyone have experience with spelt? I haven't been able to locate a good recipe. Thanks
        Mar. 1, 2010 12:45 pm
        Check the King Arthur website for spelt recipes. It can only take very little kneading - like soda breads - or it will turn out like a brick :) Take it from me - I know - LOL. Spelt muffins turned out nicely. Use google to look for recipes.
        Mar. 18, 2010 6:42 pm
        Thanks for the info about "FLOUR" I love it!I'm about to bake my first POUND CAKE"yippee!
        May 4, 2010 11:30 am
        Claudia: I use white whole wheat instead of whole wheat and instead of all-purpose. I find that it works beautifully! The only time I use all-purpose is in pie crusts. (I use a ratio of 1 1/2 cups all-purpose and 1/2 cup white whole wheat.) White whole wheat is made from white wheat, not red wheat which is what whole wheat is typically milled from. Hope this helps!:)
        Sep. 11, 2010 5:46 pm
        can you sub self rising flour for bread flour?
        Oct. 18, 2010 8:01 am
        I want to know all there is about all the different kinds of flour. Can you take typical all purpose flour and make it finer, by putting it through your Cuisinart? Pizza dough is giving me a hard time these days, I need a full proof recipe, can someone help me?
        Nov. 12, 2010 5:36 am
        can I use self rising flour for a recipe that calls for all purpose flour and doesn't have baking powder or baking soda in it? will my recipes turn out the same as always
        Nov. 20, 2010 1:02 am
        I have a recipe calling for sponge mix. Can I make my own sponge mix?
        Dec. 3, 2010 3:11 am
        I have self rising flour and my recipe called for all purpose. I made oatmeal cookies that turned out awful...didn't add any more baking powder.
        Dec. 8, 2010 8:20 am
        Great info on the white whole wheat and 'regular' (red) whole wheat, yeast breads would almost require the red, the white whole wheat could be used for others.
        Dec. 14, 2010 5:38 am
        what about self rising flour i got 4 bags it was a deal but with out realising it wasn't all purpose may i use this for cookies . please help
        Jan. 22, 2011 7:52 am
        How do you keep bread machine bread from drying out the next day??
        Jan. 24, 2011 12:40 pm
        Wonderful info
        Jan. 24, 2011 5:03 pm
        Hi All! Can someone please explain the differences and uses of the the three King Arthur Flours? Thanks for the info.
        Jan. 25, 2011 2:42 am
        Unfortunately, in my country I cant get self raising flour or cake/pastry flour, so I just use all purpose flour for everything and it works well for me.
        Jan. 25, 2011 9:58 am
        I appreciate all of these wonderful tips, but what about high altitude? That's my real problem, not the flour itself ...
        Jan. 26, 2011 8:01 am
        can anyone tell me what sifting flour does to a pound cake? And does anyone know how to put different fruit fillings on different layers of cake?thanks
        Jan. 26, 2011 9:14 pm
        flmarinecliff - see:
        Jan. 27, 2011 5:53 am
        Don't know if this is the proper place to post information about Celiac Disease -- wheat is toxic to those that have this. Our daughter, after months of being sick and many tests finally ending up in the hospital, is hopefully on the mend by omitting wheat, barley, oats to her diet.
        Jan. 27, 2011 9:40 pm
        Of course, for those of us who are celiac, we have to know much more about flours than just wheat. Wheat is bad. Millet, brown rice, tapioca, white rice, sweet rice, potato, teff, amaranth, almond meal-those are the flours that we have to know! How they handle, what they're best in, how they react to other'd be amazing to see an article on that!
        Mountain High Cooking 
        Jan. 28, 2011 6:39 am
        What about White Whole Wheat Flour?
        Jan. 28, 2011 12:37 pm
        @ cocomam which flour type is for pasta? Usually, pasta recipes call for semolina flour.
        Jan. 28, 2011 1:13 pm
        It's great that you all take the time to teach us how to use different ingredients when cooking. I was so confused with all the different types of flours.
        Jan. 29, 2011 7:28 am
        Great article, Thank-you!
        Jade C. 
        Jan. 29, 2011 1:11 pm
        white whole wheat is "soft" wheat as opposed to the hard wheat. It can be used in any recipe, including yeast breads. I recommend pastry flour for things like muffins, pancakes. cookies and the like. White whole wheat is whole wheat but the way it is milled gives it a lighter color and flavor. i use it for my wheat yeast breads and it is very good!
        Jan. 29, 2011 9:18 pm
        I usually add some Vital Wheat Gluten to AP flour when I make bread, that way I don't need a special flours. It makes beautiful, high loaves.
        Feb. 4, 2011 9:31 am
        can you tell me the US flour designation equivalent to Latin American flour designation categorized as flour type 0, 00, 000, and 0000
        Feb. 21, 2011 8:20 am
        My cousin moved to Mexico City, Mexico. Does anyone know, where to look for Whole wheat flour. under what brand and which stores.
        Mar. 1, 2011 7:42 pm
        this article help me to finished my paperwork. thanks.
        Mar. 14, 2011 1:54 am
        I was hoping to see something on the many uses of rice flour.
        Mar. 27, 2011 3:26 pm
        KC, It has been 10 yrs but when my hubby and I were visiting Mexico, there were Sam's clubs and Walmarts and even Costcos down there, as I remember. You might advise your cousin to ask the locals! Of course, there are plenty of farmers markets type deals but Mexico City is pretty modern so should be no problem.
        Apr. 12, 2011 10:00 pm what is 00 flour in Canada or states?? I have been on a million web sites...And I now know a whole lot about what it is in EUROPE But could find no equivalentcy to our labeling. Even the site here..while it states it is a European dosen't give What is is over here. Sooo is 00 a bread flour, cake flour or WHAT?? It keeps cropping up in Bread books and Baking books. ANYONE??????
        Apr. 17, 2011 1:06 pm
        Can I add xanthan gum with my all-purpose flour to raise the gluten factor when making bread in a bread machine with all-purpose flour?
        May 21, 2011 1:59 pm
        For anyone who might be new at baking, SELF RISING flour has ingredients to do just that. Just add the wet and other ingredients to it but not the baking powder or soda. Do not use with yeast bread as it is incompatible. To make bread moister, use eggs, mashed potatoes, oil, cooked fruit or vegetables. I like mashed potatoes as they do not change flavor of the bread and using instant makes it quick.
        May 25, 2011 11:46 am
        Lately, I have been trying to transition from store bought/processed foods to healthier homemade foods. Making my own breads & baked goods is a high priority in that endeavor. Thanks so much for all of detailed information here!! It helps me a great deal :-)
        Jun. 18, 2011 6:45 pm
        I use all purpose flower for everything i make and everytime it has turned out fine. Whats the big deal?
        Jun. 20, 2011 3:49 pm
        What about using Spelt flour? I just bought some at the health food store. If I use it in the bread machine will it turn out?
        Aug. 8, 2011 12:19 pm
        If I want to sub bread flour in a recipe that calls for all-porpose does the mesurment change?
        Sep. 7, 2011 7:24 am
        Delia, I've just started using spelt flour myself. It's just another form of whole wheat so I don't know why you couldn't use it in a bread machine, although I haven't tried that myself yet. (Now, if I could just find rye flour. I may have to look online for that as I can't find it in any store.) Horsegirl, it all depends on what you're making. The type of flour makes a difference. Use whatever type(s) your recipe specifies. Plaisham, I've never heard of the "zero" flours myself, nor have I ever seen it listed in any recipe. (They must be peculiar to certain countries.) I have no idea what they are. How do you keep bread machine bread from drying out the next day, jeanie? Store it in a plastic bag, that's how!
        Sep. 7, 2011 5:01 pm
        Thanks for this information. I do see a difference in my bread when I use all purpose flour verses bread flour in my bread baking. I've heard that any home baker can turn all purpose flour into bread flour by adding a few simple ingredients. I wonder if anyone knows what they are?
        Sep. 11, 2011 4:05 pm
        I loved all the info I gained today on "flour". Very informative for myself. I did not know I should put my flour in the fridge or freezer but it makes sence to me now. I love your site.
        Sep. 19, 2011 8:28 am
        It's been over 10 years since I last used a Bread I've forgotten a few tricks. My question is: The recipe calls for 1 1/8 cups water, can I omit the 1/8 cup water and add 1 egg instead?
        Oct. 2, 2011 7:00 am
        I love this site - but when I was looking for "different types of flour" I was looking for flour not made with wheat. My son and I are gluten sensitive - and I need help with ideas for substituting wheat flour other than rice and garbanzo beans....
        Oct. 7, 2011 3:27 pm
        I used bread flour for the first time last week in my white bread and was amazed at the difference in the texture of the finished product. The bread stayed fresher and softer than it ever did with AP flour. I'm a believer now.
        Oct. 12, 2011 12:43 pm
        where do you buy almond flour??????????
        Nov. 14, 2011 8:45 am
        I have a recipe that calls for cake flour and all I hve is AP flour. I found how to sub AP for cake but need to know how to use AP flour instead of Cake flour. Anyone know how to do this? Appreciate any answer.
        Dec. 30, 2011 2:54 pm
        This ? Is for luvtobake. I realize your posting is nearly a year old but i also live in Jamaica from the states and am having a bit of difficultyn,ayadelf sorting out this whaole flour situation with is what is available to us. I brought a bread mak back with me my last trip. First few loaves nice. Last one not so. Did you ever sort it out? Humidity? Me know know! If you are still around and have any info Plc let me know. Where are you on island? I am in westmoreland. Hope to hear from you.
        Jan. 20, 2012 7:30 am
        Does it hurt to freeze all purpose flour? I have a problem with my bread dough getting " ropey"..Has anyone else had this happen?
        Feb. 4, 2012 1:40 pm
        Help!! Does "cake flour, sifted" mean I measure 1st, then sift, or sift 1st, then measure? thanks!
        Feb. 27, 2012 11:14 am
        I have just started baking with whole wheat flour but don't want to give up my favorite all purpose flour recipes. Is there an easy conversion to compensate - I know I need to add more liquids but I don't know how much. Ie. when I'm making biscuits, do I add extra shortening or extra milk? And how much of which?
        Mar. 20, 2012 9:57 pm
        where can I buy a small mill that will grind wheat into flour so I can get freshly ground flour I looked at wondermill and nutrimill Do u have anyother suggestions ?
        Mar. 23, 2012 7:53 am
        Good flour primer. As poster Stephanie wrote, when you have all-purpose flour, you don't need bread flour to make bread. (Why do you think it's called all-purpose.) I found that out for myself only recently. A caveat, though. This long-time baker, also only recently, learned that you can't mix all-purpose and bread flours together. I had bit of bread flour left over, and I dumped it in with my left over all-purpose so I could get the amount of flour I needed to make a loaf of bread. When I took the bread out of my bread machine, I noticed, to my dismay, that my loaf had partially sunk. I'd NEVER had that happen before! The only reason for it that I could think of that I'd done differently was combine two different types of flours. Sure enough, the next time I made my bread, I used just one type -- the all-purpose -- and I once again got my usual beautiful loaf. Live and learn! :)
        Apr. 20, 2012 8:14 am
        A good article on flour basics. So many cooks don't understand the role of gluten in baked goods and how to make it work for you (in bread) or how it can work against you (in cakes, cookies and pie crusts). That's the real secret to success with baking in my opinion.
        Jun. 22, 2012 9:41 pm
        To Luvosho, if you have the money to spend you could invest in a Vitamix. They have a dry container that you can not only grind your own grain into flour, but you can also mix your own bread in same container to make bread without a bread machine. Pricey, but I love it and it is quick and simple to use.
        Jul. 10, 2012 4:51 pm
        I have a few recipes that call for pastry flour. I read the article on how to make a substitute for pastry flour. Thank you for the info, as I can not find pastry flour in my area.
        Aug. 23, 2012 5:25 pm
        HI, thank you so much for the information. I love baking breads,muffins,cakes, etc...Thanks again :)
        Sep. 12, 2012 7:14 am
        WOW! Much more info than I can absorb in one sitting. I have had a problem with my rye bread rising UP. It seems to spread OUT instead. A friend's son, works in a bakery, gave me some tips; little less water, oven a few degrees hotter, bread flour instead of all-purpose, and this last batch did better, but still not as high as I would have liked (compared to wide). I don't bake it in pans, but on a cookie sheet. Any suggestions? King Arthur rye flour and Pillsbury bread flour, dry yeast.
        Sep. 13, 2012 7:16 am
        Anybody looking for other flours, like rye, spelt, amaranth, rice,...., if you have such a store as Bulk Barn or any store that sells bulk, check there. That is where I find mine.
        Sep. 14, 2012 5:34 pm
        can pastry flour be used in place of all purpose flour
        Oct. 28, 2012 8:46 am
        I have been baking sourdough bread for years.It's a big hit with my family but I always wanted a loaf like from a bakery.Recently I tried 'Bread flour'.It was close to what I was looking for but still came short.I want a flour to give me a tough crust with big air bubbles ,at the same time I can use to make pizza dough and bagels. I've seen a flour from a website for flour and baking supplies.Is high gluten the way to go?
        Jan. 14, 2013 4:12 am
        What is key flour?
        Feb. 6, 2013 12:36 pm
        Bread Flour is the best for cookies in my opinion and the opinion of all my family and friends.
        Feb. 8, 2013 9:14 am
        I am trying to 'perfect' a sourdough bread recipe with little success. I'm looking for a spongy/chewy with some air bubbles texture. Any suggestions? (I've used both all-purpose and bread flour)
        Feb. 10, 2013 7:43 pm
        can i use all purpose in place of bread flour in my bread machine
        Mrs. Saleem Allana 
        Mar. 5, 2013 4:08 am
        kindly tell me how to unsubscribe from this. thanks
        Mar. 7, 2013 2:17 pm
        I have a question. I have 2 containers 1 of each full of self rising flour and one of bread flour(i do beleive). How do i find out which is which? Someone took the bags off of the top which is what I used to know what they were & now i'm clueless. I don't wanna throw it all away due to the expense, but i'm scared to just use them as regular flour since i don't know which is which and i was going to make donuts with the self rising which is why i bought it.. Anyways, can someone help me? Thank you!
        Mar. 22, 2013 1:43 am
        Tape or write the name of the flour you have on the inside of the container and then fill it with that type flour.. It'll never disappear that way.. Permenant magic markers work great. AND as far as telling which is what, I have no idea because all my flours are already marked.. Semper Fi ladies...
        Apr. 26, 2013 5:28 pm
        Melissa, I think the self rising flour should taste a bit salty, as soda or b.powder(i cannot remember which it has) are both a bit salty/sharp tasting.
        Apr. 26, 2013 5:31 pm
        Honey is a good ingredient for keeping your breads anand other baked goods fresh longer,it is a draws moisture.
        Apr. 26, 2013 5:34 pm
        To use whole wheat flour in any recipe:you can replace up to 1/3 of the all purpose flour with whole wheat flour, if you are making bread, you may want to use high gluten flour instead of all purpose with the ww since the ww doesn't have as much gluten content, unless you like a really dense loaf.
        Apr. 26, 2013 5:40 pm
        Sourdough makers: King Arthur brands, online, has all kinds of things for helping with your sourdough needs, including starters and "sour" additive to help you get a really tangy flavor. They also carry many of the specialty flours some of you are looking for. Their cookbook is GREAT for both recipes and history and science of baking information. Try the lemon zucchini muffins!
        May 21, 2013 8:18 am
        i am in rome, italy and most of the recipes i have calls for all-purpose flour but i can only find tipo 00 or tipo 0 flours here. i tried tipo 00 for my cookies and i cant come up with a dough it turns out really soft and so i have to add more flour but then the flavors is not balance to the recipe..and so it ends out tasteless. does anyone knows how to convert all-purpose flour to tipo 0, tipo 00 or combination of both to come up with the all purpose flour?
        Jul. 19, 2013 11:43 pm
        I have a similar situation. I moved to Australia and my U.S. recipes for cakes and muffins just don't turn out the same. I'm trying to find informatio on how to make Australian flour work like American flour, or how to modify the recipe so it works. Any suggestions?
        Jul. 24, 2013 4:34 pm
        Does anyone know what "whole cream" is,would it be like,"Carnation or Pets milk can cream?
        Sep. 8, 2013 10:17 pm
        The main thing to look for is that you are not using GMO wheat, which is most wheat in the U.S. It created two bad proteins when they genetically modified it. One caused inflammatory responses in the body and the other made wheat a higher glycemic index than table sugar. A cardiologist wrote a book called Wheat Belly that explains all of this. You can also look it up on YouTube. Many people have had great success curing their arthritis by not eating anything with wheat in it. Why do you think we see a rise in Celiac's disease? Also, brominated flour(or chlorinated) is a huge cause of the hypothyroid epidemic. Any element on the periodic chart that falls under the halogens replaces the iodine in your thyroid, they are all toxic to you. These are major reasons we are fat and can't loose the weight, quit listening to mainstream media, education, and regulatory agencies that are vested in corperations that promote disease and population control.
        Nov. 4, 2013 3:49 pm
        Micki. Your tirade against GMO wheat is, quite frankly, nonsense. I suggest you use reliable sources of information rather than YouTube. There is not a single commercial producer of GMO wheat in the world. Any increase in Coeliac disease is due to two things. Increased testing and frequent misdiagnosis. There is no cure for arthritis, either by wheat-free diet or any other crank method. The major reasons the West is fat are no exercise, sitting too much, and eating too much - particularly sugar. You have just advised everybody to stop listening to anybody qualified to address these issues and to take advice from a bunch of ignorant cranks.
        Dec. 15, 2013 7:30 pm
        Thank you Micki. So many folks would rather have a conspiracy theory for an ailment or malady instead of looking within. Balanced diet and exercise cures many conditions including physical & psychological. If in doubt, consult with trusted medical doctors.
        Dec. 15, 2013 7:40 pm
        Also, the symptoms for Celiac r very similar to many other conditions.
        Feb. 10, 2015 1:42 pm
        Always wondered what the differences were and now I am wondering why I waited until I was fifty to look it up! Thanks for making it easy.
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